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Une place au soleil ? : itinéraires d'insertion socioprofessionnelle de travailleurs et travailleuses migrant(e)s nord-méditerrannéen(ne)s au Maroc

Abstract : This thesis is about North-Mediterranean migrations in Morocco, in a postcolonial context. The fieldwork took place in Casablanca and Rabat, between 2014 and 2017. In addition to the participant observation, interviews were conducted with individual migrants who arrived in Morocco in the previous 10 years. The purpose of the study was to understand the reasons behind these North Mediterraneans’ choice to migrate in a Muslim country, in the South, still patriarchal compared to the Western world. The thesis also aimed to understand the integration patterns in this culturally different society, with the help of the postcolonial studies. In some cases, and more specifically when it comes to the Spanish migrants from the Andalusia region and working in the construction sector, it was an economic survival migration. Other migrants were attracted by the opportunity of a job with greater responsibilities, given, in one hand the growing Moroccan economy, and on the other hand the privileges granted to them as white westerners. In addition to the economic motivations, cosmopolitism or the desire to discover a different culture were part of the migration stories. The migration was, in some cases, an opportunity for self-realization, or for family emancipation. Finally, for some migrants who had a family story intertwined with Morocco, the migration was a symbolic “return to their roots”. These migrants benefit from positive stereotypes (honesty, competence), that lead to privileges, in the work field, but as well in their personal lives. Their often-ethnocentric posture is sometimes accompanied with a paternalist speech about Morocco and the Moroccans. However, the young and single migrants seemed to live an experience of migration “in depth”, as they were more often involved than couples and families in authentic intercultural encounters and more knowledgeable of the Moroccan culture. The female migrants experience the streets sexual harassment that targets them even more than Moroccan women, given the local preference for westerners’ physical features, as a limit to their freedom. Finally, we have envisioned migration as a cultural rapprochement tool, since the migrants deconstructed the stereotypes they had regarding Morocco and Moroccans, sharing what they learnt once they were back in their home countries.
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Selma Guessous. Une place au soleil ? : itinéraires d'insertion socioprofessionnelle de travailleurs et travailleuses migrant(e)s nord-méditerrannéen(ne)s au Maroc. Sociologie. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020PA01H071⟩. ⟨tel-03258653⟩

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