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La noosphère, un lieu de tension pour le curriculum. Étude didactique de la mise en place d’un système d’évaluation de manuels scolaires pour l’étude du champ additif à l’école primaire.

Abstract : Within contemporary societies, we notice the existence of an entity that is concerned with thinking and defining the curricular choices on which official education systems are subject. This entity is what we call a noosphere in the Anthropological Theory of the Didactics (ATD). The noosphere is a place of tension for the curriculum; its role is to judge what is, should, or could be the object of study in the society in which it operates. The forms of study are also susceptible to his judgments. Supported by the framework of the ATD, we propose that any noosphere relating to a society can be revealed by considering the institutions that constitute it. These institutions have their modes of operation and each participates in their way in curricular decisions. The organization of a noosphere nevertheless presupposes hierarchies of powers, then subjugations between institutions. In this regard, we assume as a working hypothesis that the propensity for curricular changes can be informed by the analysis of the subjugations of the institutions making up the noosphere. Our study is illustrated by the context of Brazilian society, centered in the period 1994 - 2016. As in many societies, textbooks are an important vehicle of the curriculum in Brazil. Given this, since the mid-1990s a subjugation relationship has been established between a state institution that watches over the quality of textbooks, IPNLD, and a private institution composed by publishing houses, IM. The fact is that the beginning of this period is marked by the awakening of the noosphere of this society, after an interval where this noosphere was almost inactive due to the historical-political context. Therefore, the legacy of the modern mathematics movement was still present in the textbooks of that time. IPNLD arrives in this scenario with the mission of monitoring the production of textbooks to bring them into conformity with a national curriculum project. We study the effect of assessments on textbooks over time, with a focus on the subject of Mathematics in elementary school, especially on addition and subtraction operations. To carry out this study, we analyze the speeches of this evaluating institution and compare them with the textbooks produced by the private market. Several concepts intervene as tools to interpret and model the mathematical activity projected by the noosphere : praxeology, ostensives, generator of types of tasks, variables, scope of technique, and others. In our work, we offer theoretical and methodological reflections regarding these concepts. Our analysis is done in five case studies, where we spot changes in the textbooks, but also identify a lot of resistance from IM to IPNLD‘s requests. The question is that other institutions are pushing or slowing down curriculum changes. After all, it is necessary to accept the powerlessness of the noosphere in the face of the constraints of the reality of the functioning of didactic systems.
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https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03049943
Contributor : Danielly Regina Kaspary <>
Submitted on : Thursday, December 10, 2020 - 9:46:12 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, December 16, 2020 - 3:31:03 AM

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Danielly Regina Kaspary dos Anjos. La noosphère, un lieu de tension pour le curriculum. Étude didactique de la mise en place d’un système d’évaluation de manuels scolaires pour l’étude du champ additif à l’école primaire.. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. Communauté Université Grenoble Alpes; Université Fédérale du Mato Grosso do Sul, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03049943⟩

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