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Construction et évolution de la notion de patrimoine à Chiang Mai. Du monument national au patrimoine ordinaire de la communauté locale

Abstract : Since the 1990s, the rapid urban transformations have raised much awareness about the ordinary urban and architectual heritage. This leads to develop a new approach towards citizen participation in conservation projects, aimed at confronting the threats of urban growth and defending points of view differing from the position of the national institutions. The participative approach takes into account the ordinary urban fabric and culture related to customary and domestic practices of local collectivities, which until then had been neglected at the expense of a focus on a national vision of heritage. This marks a turning point in the way of considering heritage and designing the conservation project. This research aims to examine the role of ordinary heritage and citizens' participation in the construction of heritage at Chiang Mai from 1990 to 2014, period of transition of heritage management power. In this framework, Chiang Mai provides an informative study site as there are local dynamics and strong involvement of the citizens in the conservation process.This research relates to the academic field of critical heritage studies, which intend to deconstruct hegemonic discourses produced by state institutions and international organizations such as UNESCO. It examines the plurality of practices and significance attached to the valued object, and their dissonance. By combining architectural and socio-anthropological approaches, this research sets up a twofold analysis of conservation projects and vocabulary related to these projects.Considered here as « Third space » (Bhabha, 2006), the conflict situations – raised by the gap and even contradiction between the project and the ways of thinking and doing things of inhabitants – are examined for their potential for innovating and renewing the heritage conceptions and practices. We assume that the controversy is specific time for dialogue and negotiations, that enables the hybridization of diverse visions and referents of heritage, and the development of singular proposals. This shows the capacity of local actors to undertake actions, reflected in the adaptation of local notions and practices and the appropriation of international apparatus, that generate the hybrid discourses and practices of heritage, adapted to the specific cultural context.This research focuses on the vocabulary of heritage, emerging from a blend of local and international references. We consider this kind of vocabulary as an indicator of new heritage notions and categories. In this perspective, we study the evolution of meaning of heritage which have been developed over time, from "ancient monument" (boransathan) to "community's heritage" (moradok chumchon). This corresponds to the shift from State's centralist policies to the principle of decentralization of heritage management. The words revealing the difference or the "heritage untranslatables" (Cassin et Wosny, 2016) are also examined through the local reinterpretation of international concepts such as "tangible and intangible cultural heritage". This shows the gap between local worldview and international concepts which are based on Western perception of heritage, and demonstrates the way in which local actors instrumentalise the international concepts of heritage for claiming their right to manage local heritage.
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Pijika Pumketkao-Lecourt. Construction et évolution de la notion de patrimoine à Chiang Mai. Du monument national au patrimoine ordinaire de la communauté locale. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est; Mahāwitthayālai Kasētsāt (Thaïlande), 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019PESC1021⟩. ⟨tel-02915416⟩

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