La diffusion de la préscolarisation en Inde du Sud. Le cas du Tamil Nadu et de Pondichéry

Abstract : The first forms of preschooling have been present in India since 1975 in India in Integrated Child Development Services (ou ICDS), including the anganwadis system. The two priorities of the action for children are: free childcare for all families (in rural and urban area) and mitigating malnutrition and the lack of access to medical care. In addition to an important welfare system, these centres appear as a showcase of the social actions of the state of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry territory. Since the beginning of the 2000’s, the preschooling opportunities have been modified by new claims from families and from private actors, including NGOs and religious communities. The private sector is an undeniable reality and most families have recourse to theirs services. My research indicates that the demand for preschooling is nowadays conditioned by the representations and new expectations of families who aim for new practices linked to urban experience and aspire to belong to the middle classes.This thesis first describes how this demand is taken into account, or not, by institutions, then how these changes have taken place, and how the State negotiates relations between the public and private sectors and develops partnerships by committing itself to a reassessment of its tasks. Then the focus is put on the role of teachers in order to understand the evolution of preschool. The understanding of their everyday practice shows they have developed professional attitudes which highlight their reflexivity both as purveyors of care and as educators. The analysis articulates the different territorial levels of school ground, school, State, country and international organizations. The designs and expectations of the different actors of preschool are analysed through the prism of observations and interviews within the structures and within the households, acting both as a researcher and an educator.
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Emilie Ponceaud Goreau. La diffusion de la préscolarisation en Inde du Sud. Le cas du Tamil Nadu et de Pondichéry. Géographie. Université Bordeaux Montaigne, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02282810⟩

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