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Esperanto kaj la Dua Mondmilito: postmemora aliro al transnaciaj rakontoj

Abstract : The Second World War hit the Esperanto movement abruptly: in Europe and Asia persecution of its members was introduced by the totalitarian regimes which appeared or established themselves in the course of the 1930s. But the war also broke out at a time of poor organisation of the movement: in 1936 the neutral movement split into UEA and IEL. Likewise in the workers' movement Stalinists had provoked a schism within SAT and in 1932 had founded IPE. Activities during the war were greatly reduced and documentary traces are rare. The post-war rebirth was thus strongly marked by the recent experience of the war. In the second half of the 20th century a significant part of Esperanto writing either deals directly with the war or is strongly influenced by its consequences. The corpus is extensive and contains novels, short stories, poems, autobiography and other forms of writing such as one opera libretto. Few of these texts are known outside the Esperanto community, except Maskerado ĉirkaŭ la morto, the life story of Tivadar Soros (which appeared in 1965). Because it has been translated into several languages it is now part of the source material for researchers into the Shoah. But the corpus is extremely rich and deals with very diverse topics concerning almost every part of the world: the evacuation of children in London in 1939 in the novel Londonanidoj written by an adolescent Donald Munns (1946), the Japanese prisoners in US camps in Naskitaj sur la ruino by Miyamoto Masao (1976), the destiny of Scottish families between the First and Second World Wars in La granda kaldrono (1978) by John Francis, the experience of the Shoah in the poems by Julius Balbin. Even the epic masterpiece by William Auld, La infana raso (1955), can be read as a post-Hiroshima poem. The growth of totalitarian politics and the following war still interest today's writers, as is shown by the novels of Mikael Bronŝtejn and Trevor Steele. From these fictional accounts, based on historical facts, one can understand how the Esperanto community has built its memory of this period: which events it is more inclined to deal with, but also which it is more inclined to forget. 53 The post-memory approach engages with just that: what view of the world does a work convey to its readers? It does not aim to discuss literary quality, but rather the historical content. National literature on the world war is strongly marked by the national experience, because inevitably the wartime experience is very different for different countries. Even some languages are not just culturally but politically marked by the war. Some war stories are international and create a bridge between two language territories, especially with migrants who take on the language of the host country. But the Esperanto contribution presents the unique quality of a post-national discourse, at the same time both rooted in the national experience and looking at the world from another point of view. The post-memory approach strives to capture and identify the specificity of the Esperanto war narrative beyond national conditions and imperialist world views.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 17, 2020 - 9:04:28 AM
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Pascal Dubourg Glatigny. Esperanto kaj la Dua Mondmilito: postmemora aliro al transnaciaj rakontoj. Internacia Kongresa Universitato, Aug 2020, On line, Canada. ⟨halshs-02915944⟩

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