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Une histoire de la géographie au prisme des sciences humaines : Titre de l'inédit : Pour une histoire des « sciences sociales » françaises (1944-1986)

Abstract : The objective of this new work, entitled For a (social) History of French "Social Sciences" (1944-1986), is to propose a reinterpretation of a history that is very rarely approached in a global manner. While there is an abundance of work on the "great men" of the period or on movements such as structuralism, and while there is a vivid revival of microhistory and discipline-specific work, a general social history of research collectives and categories has yet to be written. The first part examines how a small group of men born between the end of the nineteenth century and 1914 invested a set of new or regenerated institutions dating from the Liberation and the following years to turn them into research enterprises, poor at first, then better endowed from the mid-1950s onwards, with the rise of funding from the state and other actors. The institutions that were created experienced strong growth, leading their leaders to recruit more and more staff, and increasingly in a precarious form, relying on a few lieutenants. The social structure that took shape over the next 20 years was pyramidal in nature, based on the first massification of the university and on a doctrine of a research developed out of public service. The crisis of May-June 1968 revealed a growing unease with the hierarchies that had emerged during the period, which had their counterpart in the gradual and staggered institutionalization of "new" disciplines (sociology, economics, ethnology, political science). The political changeover in 1981 led to a clear modification of the scientific policy that had been developed until then. The second part looks at the hyperonymic (encompassing) and semantic uses of "social sciences" over the same period. After first indicating precedents dating back to the 1930s, the work shows how the category gradually became institutionalized at the CNRS (from 1966) and at the DGRST. It then shows the relationship of this institutionalization with the categories in use by external funders (American foundations, UNESCO), for whom the French hyperonym "human sciences" has little meaning. The analysis then takes a closer look at one of the institutions that has benefited the most from this international manna, the VIth section of the École pratique des hautes études. However, the effects of multi-positionality, the rivalries between leaders and institutions, etc., call for a relativization of the possible embodiment of "social sciences" by this particular institution. The chapter closes with a study of a corpus of 40 references (articles) bearing the expression in their title. It proceeds to a number of analyses on the uses and differential attractiveness of "social sciences" for the fields supposedly belonging to it. The program that follows these two chapters first tries to show the extensions that such research could have.
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https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03474715
Contributor : Olivier Orain Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Friday, December 10, 2021 - 12:44:51 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, June 26, 2022 - 3:24:38 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Friday, March 11, 2022 - 7:07:56 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03474715, version 1

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Olivier Orain. Une histoire de la géographie au prisme des sciences humaines : Titre de l'inédit : Pour une histoire des « sciences sociales » françaises (1944-1986). Géographie. Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 2021. ⟨tel-03474715⟩

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