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Le russe dans l'enseignement supérieur en France, de l'entre-deux-guerres à la fin des années 1970 : enjeux institutionnels, disciplinaires et politiques

Abstract : The teaching of foreign languages is linked to geopolitical interests. In French Higher Education, Russian language is first introduced at the end of the 19th century, following a strategical alliance between France and Russia, which comes to an end with the Russian Revolution in 1917. In the Interwar Period, the opening of new positions in Russian language in French universities comes to a halt, while the interest for Eastern Europe partially shifts towards Czechoslovakia, Poland and Yugoslavia. Russian as academics is at a peak after the Second World War, when the USSR appears as a major power. However, in universities, Slavic, then Russian studies, are organized like English or German Studies, that is to say following an academia focusing on classical literature. As a result, academics could seem disconnected from a growing demand towards Russian language as a skill. However, after the death of Stalin, French Ministries of Education and of Foreign Affairs struggle to strengthen diplomatic relations, enabling Russian language students to travel to the USSR, where they can practice a modern language. From then on, Russian language is known by two means: French teachers, who where trained outside Russia or USSR, assisted by native Russian speakers who fled the Soviet Union and often speak a conservative Russian, and through these diplomatic relations, which bring Soviet teachers. A new generation of French teachers is progressively trained after the Second World War, through the French concourse of agregation: these new teachers are mostly trained in classical literature, but some of them also studied for a few months in a Soviet university. From the 1960s, Russian academic field evolves – along with other foreign languages studies – to consider more and more Russian as a modern language, beyond the language of a classical literature: language is studied for itself – to future teachers, but also to scientists and for business purposes – and as a language of culture as a whole (history, art, social sciences, etc.) known as civilization.
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Submitted on : Thursday, December 2, 2021 - 5:12:07 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03463894, version 1

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Sandra Dominique. Le russe dans l'enseignement supérieur en France, de l'entre-deux-guerres à la fin des années 1970 : enjeux institutionnels, disciplinaires et politiques. Histoire. Université de Paris, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020UNIP7243⟩. ⟨tel-03463894⟩

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