, United States Government Printing Office, Foreign Relations of the United States, vol.XIII, 1960.

. Devlin,

. Cia-cable, XIV, Document 421. 211 "Alleged Assassination Plots, Central Intelligence Agency Files, Job 79R00890A, Box 13, Folder 1, NSC Briefings, 1958.

. Weiner, CIA agents operating out of Building 25, or JM/WAVE on the campus of the University of Miami to sound out the ways and means such an operation could be put together. Of the various exile groups active at the time the most notable were Alpha 66 639 led by Antonio Veciana Blanch 640, Legacy of the Ashes, op.cit. 162. 214 CIA Cable, op.cit, 1960.

U. Revolucioniaria, , p.641

, Movimento Revolucionaria del Pueblo, p.642

R. Rescate-democratico, Consisting of 66 men who had also opposed the Batista regime -a common feature of the Cuban Exile community-the groups' first attacks were made on ports at Isabela de Sagua and Juan Francisco Beach in 1962. Other raids, made in conjunction with Commandos L, or Commandos Liberty, included the blowing up and sinking of the Soviet merchant ship Baku docked at the time at a Cuban port. These attacks were led by Tony Cuesta, the military leader of Alpha 66 and Commando L, and Santiago Alvarez, an exile with military training in the US Army, 643 and the Movimento Democrata Cristiano (MDC). being too violent, it was noted that the MRR was the most disciplined and best organised, p.27, 1958.

. October, Veciana states that he was recruited by Maurice Bishop, aka David Atlee Phillips, a CIA agent with links to PBSUCCESS and, allegedly, to Lee Harvey Oswald, see, HSCA, 135, op.cit. 640 Shortened to Antonio Veciana in most documents, 2015.

U. Revolucioniaria, It was composed of around twenty groups and used the Catholic fish as its symbol. An anti-Castro and anticommunist group, it called for the return of seized property to its owners, Castro to be overthrown, and Cuba to return to free enterprise, or Revolutionary Unity was formed in Cuba in December, 1960.

, Lead among others by Manuel Ray Rivero, also an anti-Batista activist, the MRP was a decidedly socialist organisation. It called for nationalisation of the economy and agrarian reforms, The Movimento Revolucionaria del Pueblo, or Revolutionary Movement of the People was formed in Cuba in May, p.97, 1960.

, Emphatically anti-socialist", this group was part of the Cuban Revolutionary Council with Varona as its deputy leader. Varona was also seen as one of the driving forces behind the Bay of Pigs invasion. 6-6 Cuba: Counter Revolutionary Handbook, p.98, 1960.

, Protesting against Castro's economic policy and communism, this group was considered largely ineefective due to its lack of means for sabotage operations. 6-6 Cuba: Counter Revolutionary Handbook, op.cit, 100. 645 6-6 Cuba: Counter Revolutionary Handbook, The Movimento Democrata Cristiano,or Christian Democrat Movement, was created by José Rasco in Havana in, p.93, 1960.

. Ibid,

H. Silva, Manuel Artime profile, 1977.

T. Shackley-with and R. A. Finney, Spymaster: My Life in the CIA, pp.71-72, 2005.

, JFK Assassination System Identification Form, vol.650, p.17, 1964.

J. Subject and M. , , vol.2, 1964.

, The Book of Honor: The Secret Lives and deaths of CIA Operatives, See also, John Prados, 1966.

, Radio operator in the Cuban Exile Navy Roberto Pichardo Snr. obtained US citizenship only in August 1969 having resided in Miami since 1960. See, annexes to this study. 704 Personal correspondence with Reginaldo Blanco, 2017.

J. Sonck, La Force Aérienne au Congo, p.28, 2017.

J. Sonck, L'échec de l'opération "Watch Chain, p.28, 2017.

, See photo pages, Hoare, The Road to Kalamata

C. Hoare and . Mercenary, , p.59

J. and A. Lukas, Katanga Capital Appears Retaken, New York Times, 1964.

. Vandewalle, Vandewalle also insinuates that Brigadier-General H.H. Robertz of the South African Army also played an active role in this recruitment. underlines the anti-communist nature of the unit. 734 As for 5 Commando's NCO's, these were former soldiers that had served in the British Army or the colonial police such as

J. Peters, 735 Peters, a sergeant in Hoare's forces, would later become Commanding Officer of 5 Commando after Hoare's departure from the Congo, 1965.

, Among those mercenaries arriving in September 1964 and putting pay to the commonlyheld belief that all of Hoare's forces were South African or Rhodesian was Briton Gary Cooper, p.736

, Never numbering more than two hundred men, vol.737, p.738

, cleansing operation' hic h sent "alcoholics, drunks, booze artists, bums and layabouts" as e ll as homosexuals back to South Africa

, As Mockler notes, each of the units acted independently of one another and operated under different commands. 740 With Hoare having overall command of the units, this command was often 'remote and occasionally nonexistent'. This led the men to criticise Hoare for taking undue credit for military successes, These units were known as 51, vol.52, p.741

, Examine your ammunition frequently. Check and clean your magazine springs and clips. 4) Soldiers in pairs; look after each other; be faithful to your mate. Be loyal to your leaders. 5) Tell no lies in battle. All information must be accurate or your unit will suffer. Exaggerate to your girlfriends later, but NEVER, NEVER in battle. 6) Be ready to move at a moment's notice; mark all your equipment; keep it handy at all times

, Take no unnecessary risks. 9) Stand-to dawn and dusk. At night have confidence in your sentries; post as few as the situation demands. 10) Be aggressive in actionchivalrous in victory-stubborn in defence. See, Terry Aspinall, "5 Commando's Rules of Battle, p.28, 2017.

. Mockler,

T. Aspinall,

. Mockler,

C. Hoare and . Mercenary,

. Ibid,

. Mockler,

. Ibid, Memorandum from the Joint Chiefs of Staff to Secretary of Defense McNamara, Evacuation of US Personnel, vol.743, 1964.

S. Kelly, :. America's-tyrant, and . Mobutu-of-zaire, Memorandum from the Deputy Director of the Office of Central African Affairs (Looram) to the Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs (Williams), p.19, 1993.

C. Frus, Telegram from the Department of State to the Embassy in Kenya, 1964.

L. Garrison, Mercenary Group Mutinies in Congo, 1964.

. Villafaña,

L. Garrison, White Mercenaries Help Retake Key Port in Congo from Rebels

. October, , 1964.

C. Hoare and . Mercenary, Rebels in Congo Seize US Doctor, New York Times, vol.769, pp.82-83, 1964.

, Belfast family return to Congo to honour friends murdered in 1964 Simba rebellion, BBC Television Productions, vol.854, 2015.

G. Cousins, Danger does not deter NI family from Congo work, News Letter, 2017.

. Ibid,

G. Garvin, McKay' 881 held regular meetings with Mike Hoare to discuss how the new navy, the Force Navale Congolaise, 2014.

C. Hoare and . Mercenary, , p.239

O. Dodenhoff, , p.61

, A pseudonym used by Hawes and Koenig in Cold War, Navy Seal

, According to Trento, Clines also had close ties to Nicaragua's President Somoza, and it was the friendship between the two which had enabled the CIA to train anti-Castro Cubans for the Bay of Pigs invasion. Later, when a revolt threatened Somoza's regime, anti-Castro Cubans were used to put it down, Clines was a highly-decorated veteran of the Korean War, Clines was involved in covert operations in Cuba between 1961-1962, and had worked with Ted Shackley, p.134, 2005.

, Bill Hamilton appears to be the real name of the person referred to in his 2018 publication: Cold War, Navy Seal, op.cit.). Indeed, the 2016 publication Night Fighter: an Insider's Story of Special Ops from Korea to Seal Team, While correspondence with James Hawes has revealed that pseudonyms have been used to refer to CIA operatives such as 'Jordy McKay, vol.6, 2016.

, It is possible that 'Jordy McKay' is the 'Jaques Noel' referred to by Hoare in Congo Mercenary

, The G3 section of military staff is responsible for operations and training. Equally, it is possible that Hoare, too, has used a pseudonym to protect the identity of the person in question. 890 "Speech of Dr. Fidel Castro at the UN General Assembly, Hoare speaks of Noel being assigned to G3 (operations) in Léopoldville, and tells of how Noel outlined the tactical picture in the Fizi-Baraka pocket, p.23, 1960.

P. Gleijeses, Cuba's First Venture in Africa: Algeria, Journal of Latin American Studies, p.160, 1961.

S. Renton and O. Zeilig, Cuba Began Role in Zanzibar in '61: Havana's Part in Revolution Outlined in Washington -Guerilla Course Cited, New York Times, vol.106, 1964.

, Cuban revolution itself"; 901 the fact that Guevara did not return to Cuba preferring, instead, to embark on a three-month tour which would take him to Africa, vol.902

, His first port of call was Algiers to discuss the Congo with Ben Bella, Cuba's closest friend on the African continent, and a nation with which Cuba had formed a 'brotherhood'. 903 On 14 January, Guevara arrived in Ghana where he was greeted enthusiastically by waiting crowds, 904 and after meeting Kwame Nkrumah, Guevara was led on a tour of the development projects being put in place in the Ghanaian capital, Accra. 905 The tour also included visits to Mali, to Guinea, to Dahomey (now Benin), and to Congo-Brazaville where Guevara would meet Alphonse Massamba-Débat (Congo-Brazaville), 906 and Angola's Agostinho Neto, With the objective of making this strategy become reality through establishing and consolidating Cuban relations with radical African governments and liberation movements, 1964.

, OAS Expels Cuba After Delegates Stalk Out, Cuba had been formally expelled from the OAS on 14 February, 1962. See, 1962.

J. Dumbrell, President Johnson and Soviet Communism, p.146, 2012.

O. Anderson, , p.619

S. Letter-from-roberto and G. Gomez, Cuba's First Venture in Africa: Algeria, Gleijeses, p.161, 1961.

, Che Guevara's Visit to Ghana, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana, Guevara Receives Rousing Welcome, pp.61-74, 1965.

. Ibid, , p.61

, According to British historian Richard Gott, for many years the Guardian's correspondent in Latin America, and an historian who met Guevara in Cuba in 1963, Massamba-Débat had asked Guevara to provide Cuban military assistance to Pierre Mulele. See Richard Gott's introduction to Ernesto "Che" Guevara, The African Dream: The Diaries of the Revolutionary War in the Congo, 2001.

, It was during meetings with the latter that Guevara promised support for the MPLA through the provision of military advisors who would operate from the Angolan enclave of Cabinda. It was the beginning of Cuban intervention in Angola which would last for over two decades. For Gleijeses a detailed account of Cuba's involvement in Angola see Conflicting Missions, pp.1959-1976, 2003.

. Ibid,

, CIA officers were assigned to different Divisions i.e., the Africa Division. These Divisions were broken down into Country Teams whose role was to focus activities in one particular country

, The Patrol Craft Fast (PCF) or Swift Boat. Conceived by the Naval Advisory Group, Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (NAVADGRP MACV), this was an alluminium boat made by Sewart Seacraft of Berwick, Louisiana used for patrols along the coastal and interior waterways of Vietnam

, Jessup refers to "the only available nucleus of reliable covert boat operators, his report to President Johnson, 1965.

, Memorandum from the Chief of the Africa Division, Directorate of Plans, Central Intelligence Agency (Fields) to the Deputy Director for Plans (Fitzgerald), This line remains classified but the identity of those in question is clear. 952, vol.3, 1965.

D. N. Gibbs, The Political Economy of Third World Intervention: Mines, Money, and US Policy in the Congo Crisis, 1991.

. Gibbs, Mobutu and the Congo

O. Schramme, As David Gibbs points out, Tshombe's links to UMHK were underlined by this group's support for him during the early, 1960.

, Once this had been achieved, he hoped that the US would help him militarily speaking to finish the job. Ironically, in view of its previous cooperation with mercenary outfits such as Mike Hoare's 5 Commando, the Makasi were once more to play a leading role in putting down any threat to the Congo's internal security. Among pilots who were to carry out attacks on Bakuvu was Frederico Flaquer. This Cuban Exile had been recruited in 1966 after public interest in the CIA's role in the Congo had increased after the publication of articles in the New York Times. One of these articles was entitled "How CIA put 'Instant Air Force' Into Congo". 1015 Later, in the 1980s, he would be recruited to for Jonas Savimba's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) in its fight against, Whether or not UMHK financed the revolt

, Cuban and Soviet-backed regime which defeated Portuguese and South African objectives in Central Africa, p.1016

, Although Flaquer has expressed his reservations about being ordered to attack mercenary positions in Bakuvu, and with the US having expressed the wish to gradually withdraw from the Congo, Flaquer and eleven other Exile pilots were to continue their presence in the Congo. This was a presence which finally led to Schramme crossing the border into Rwanda, and his forces surrendering their weapons on 5 November, 1967.

O. Gibbs and . Cit, , p.170

, New York Times, p.26

, Rebel forces led by Gaston Soumialot capture Uvira and Fizi, two towns on the northern banks of Lake Tanganyika, op.cit. 1016 Interview with Frederico Flaquer, 1964.

, Moïse Tshombe returns to the Congo and is appointed Prime Minister, 1964.

. Mid-late, Rebel forces led by Nicolas Olenga capture large portions of areas in the north and the north-west of the DRC, 1964.

, Olenga's troops capture Stanleyville (Kisangani). They take US diplomats hostage, 1964.

. August, The Fifth Mechanised Brigade divided into LimaI and Lima II under the command of Belgian Colonel Vandewalle begins operations to put down the rebellion. Forces include Hoare's 5 Commando, Schramme's Bataillion Léopard, 1964.

, Makasi, and the ANC make their way up through the Congo from bases in Katanga

, Makasi commandos led by 'Rip' Robertson arrive in the Congo, 1964.

. September, Denard's forces and the Makasi take Lisala in the north-west, 1964.

. October, Hoare's forces and the Makasi take Bumba in the north-west, 1964.

. October, Olenga orders the arrest of all Americans and Belgians in, 1964.

. November, the Stanleyville Column advances northwards to Kindu, 1964.

. November, Belgian paratroopers arrive in Ascension to prepare for rescue operations, 1964.

. November, The rescue operations are authorised by Congolese authorities, 1964.

. November, The Dragon Force arrives at Kamina air base, 1964.

. Stanleyville-rescue and . Operations, , pp.24-25, 1964.

, 00: Belgian paratroopers are dropped on Stanleyville by US C-130 transport planes. 07.00: The control tower and runways are cleared and secured by Belgian troops. 07.30: Belgian troops make their way into Stanleyville. 07.45: The Simba start to shoot hostages, Makasi forces attack rebel positions at Stanleyville aeroport. 06, vol.45, p.5

, Hoare's commandos have reached Stanleyville and start clear up operations

. November, Dragon Noir operations free hostages at Isiro, 1964.

. November, Belgian paratroopers leave for Ascension, 1964.

, Che Guevara arrives in Tanzania, Operations White Giant and Violettes Impériales bring rebel operations to a standstill, 1965.

. November, The mercenary revolt led by Jean Schramme and Bob Denard sees defeat by ANC troops supported by the Makasi, 1965.

, Association des Basonge du Katanga / Association of the Basonge of Katanga). A Congolese tribal association created in the 1950's)

, Also known as the "Flying Tigers", this was a group of pilots sent by President Roosevelt to help Chinese, p.1941

, An air force made up of foreign pilots created in 1967 whose purpose was to support the secession of the Nigerian region of Biafra, BAF

, Association des Baluba de Katanga / Baluba Association of Katanga). A Congolese tribal association created in the 1950's

, Association des Batabwa ou Bena Marungu du Katanga (Association of the Batabwa or Bena Marungu of Katanga). A Congolese tribal association created in the 1950's, BBK

, A Belgian company set up in 1906 to create a rail network in the Congo

, BKC (Belgian Katanga Company / Compagnie du Katanga). A concession company of the Congo Free State

, BOI (Bureau of Investigation). A forerunner to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

, A British mining company owned by Cecil Rhodes created at the turn of the 20th century, BSAC

, A Belgian political party which existed between, BSP, 1945.

, CABDA (Comité d'action et de défense des Belges d'Afrique / Action Committee for the Defence of African Belgians). A defence group set up in 1960 to protect the interests of Belgians in the Congo

, CARAMAR (Caribbean Aero Marine Corporation). A Central Intelligence Agency shell company

, Civil Air Transport). A Nationalist Chinese airline created in 1946 by the Central Intelligence Agency

, CIA (Central Intelligence Agency). The US foreign intelligence service created in 1947

, Compagnie du Congo pour le Commerce et l'Industrie / Company of the Congo for Business and Industry)

, CGTG (Confederación General de Trabajadores de Guatemala). A Guatemalan workers union

, CEREA (Centre de Regroupement Africain / African Regroupment Centre). A Congolese political party created in 1958

, CIDA (Inter-American Committee for Agricultural Development). A committee established in 1961 at Punta del Este

, A forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency, 1946.

, CINSTRIKE (Commander in Chief, United States Strike Forces)

, A union of peasant workers formed in Guatemala in 1944

, Also known as the Kuomintang of China, this party was the main opposition to the Chinese Party of China during the Chinese Civil War

, A Congolese political party created in 1964 to oppose the official government of the Congo

. Cnl-b, Conseil National de Libération-Bocheley). A branch of the CNL

. Cnl-g, Conseil National de Libération-Gbenye). A branch of the CNL

, An organisation set up by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to distribute relief aid from 145 to, 1947.

, Office of the Coordination of Intelligence). A forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency set up in 1941

, An advisory team created by the US government in 1963 to assist Congolese military authorities

, Convention Nationale Congolaise / Congolese National Convention). An alliance of Congolese political parties created to participate in elections in the, 1965.

, Conféderation des associations tribales du Katanga / Confederation of Katangan Tribal Associations). A tribally-based political party created in 1958 by Moïse Tshombe and Godefroid Munongo

. Cpc-/-ccp, Communist Party of China / Chinese Communist Party). A Chinese political party founded in 1921 by

, A political party created in 1912 by Vladimir Lenin

, Cuban Revolutionary Council). A group of Cuban Exiles formed in 1961 with CIA assistance to overthrow the regime of Fidel Castro

, Comité Spécial du Katanga / Special Committee of the Katanga). A privately-owned Belgian company set up in 1900 which operated in the Congo Free State

, Confederación de Trabajadores de Cuba / Confederation of Cuban Workers). A Cuban union of workers established in 1939

, The head of the CIA from, 1946.

, Deputy Director of Plans). An official of the CIA responsible for overseeing clandestine operations, DDP

, DFEC (Defense, Financial and Economic Committee). A branch of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

. Ituc-nw, International Trade Union Committee of Negro Workers). An organisation founded in 1928 which was part of the Red International of Labour Unions

, Junta Revolucion Cubana / Cuban Revolutionary Unity). A leftist group created in Peurto Rico by Manolo Ray Rivero. It opposed the USA but wanted its help in overthrowing Fidel Castro, JURE

, Founded in 1942 as the Kenya African Study Group. Its objective was to obtain independence for Kenya from the United Kingdom

, KMT (Kuomintang). See, Chinese Nationalist Army

, Founded in 1918, this is the oldest Greek political party still active

, Several classes of amphibious assault ships used to land troops

, LRA (Lord's Revolutionary Army). A rebel group operating in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

, A public research university founded in 1895

, This was a part of the United States security assistance programme authorised by the Foreign Assistance Act of, MAP, 1961.

, MATS (Military Air Transport Service). An element of the United States Department of Defence Unified Command activated on 1, 1948.

, MISTEBEL (Mission Technique Belge au Katanga / Belgian Technical Mission). A Belgian agency whose role was to coordinate Belgian activities in post-independent Katanga

, MNC (Mouvement National Congolais / Congolese National Movement). A political party set up in 1958 by Patrice Lumumba

. Mnc-k, Mouvement National Congolais-Kalonji). A separate branch of the MNC led by Albert Kalonji

. Mnc-l, Mouvement National Congolais-Lumumba). A branch of the MNC led by Patrice Lumumba

, MPLA (People's Movement for the Liberation of Angola). An organisation set up in 1956 with the goal of obtaining independence for Angola

, Established in November 1949, the role of the MPSB was to review the supplies of military material, and recommend ways of increasing these supplies

, This was a splinter group of the Partido Revolucionario Cubana-Autentico (PRC-A), MRP

, MRR (Movimento de Recuperacion Revolucionario / Movement for Revolutionary Recovery)

, Created in mid-1959 by Manuel Artime. The objective of the organisation was to depose Fidel Castro

, PRC (People's Republic of China)

. Psa-(parti, Its leaders included Antoine Gizenga and Pierre Mulele, and it disappeared from the Congolese political scene, 1959.

. Psa-g, Parti Solidaire Africain-Gizenga). A branch of the PSA led by Antoine Gizenga

, Formed in April 1951, this committee of the US executive coordinated and planned psychological operations, PSB

. Psc-cvp, A Belgian political party active from, 1945.

, Air Force). The United Kingdom's aerial warfare force created in 1918

. Ras-(rhodesia, Air Services). A commercial airline operating in Southern Rhodesia from, 1960.

. Rdr-(rescate-democratico-revolucionario, This party was the driving force behind the Bay of Pigs Invasion of, 1960.

, A British society created in 1830 for the advancement of geographical sciences, RGS

, The name under which the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) was known until, 1964.

. Saaf-(south, African Air Force). The aerial forces of South Africa, 1920.

, SAISS (South African Institute for Strategic Studies). A South African think-tank

, SFIO (Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière /French Section of the Workers' International). A French socialist party founded in 1905 and replaced in 1969 by the

. Sgb-(société, Founded in 1822 by William I of the Netherlands, this organisation provided funds for commercial ventures in Belgium and the Belgian Congo

, British intelligence services founded in 1909, SIS

. Soe, A British secret service created in July 1940 whose role was to provide support to different resistance forces in Europe, 1946.

, A Guatemalan union for workers in education

, Established at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida in 1961, this was a unified command capable of responding to crises around the globe

, USSS (United States Secret Service). A federal law enforcement agency, 1965.

, VOA (Voice of America). A news source funded by the US government and established in 1942

, Founded in 1925 in London, this was an association of students from West African countries studying in the United Kingdom

, A CIA front company set up in Lichtenstein to maintain the aircraft and boats used by United States covert forces in the Congo

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, 1030 Photos courtesy of Nigel Osborn, 1961.

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, United Nations peacekeeping forces in the Congo (probably Swedish), p.1031

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, 1031 Photo courtesy of Tommy Nilsson

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R. Blanco-with-cia-operations, P. Officer, and . Alvarez, Belgian Air Force liaisons Officer, and Major Avi Blume (Wing Ops. FATAC), p.1036

, Reginaldo Blanco (right) with Francisco "Panchito" Alvarez, in front of T-28, 1964.

, Photos 4, 5 and 6, courtesy of Reginaldo Blanco

, Reginaldo Blanco (right) with Francisco "Panchito" Alvarez, at controls of B-26, 1037.

&. Tony, . Blazquez, &. Panchito, Q. Alvarez, T. Mendez et al., Reginaldo Blanco at wheel of jeep with from left to right, 1038.

, 1037 Photo courtesy of Reginaldo Blanco. 1038 Photo courtesy of Manny Pichardo

, Makasi B-26 bomber, p.1039

, Makasi Helicopter (note stretcher)

, Photo courtesy of Tony Blazquez

, The Stanleyville Column, 1040.

, Commando members inspect captured Soviet weapons 1041

, Belgian paratroopers at Stanleyville airport. (Note USAF C-47 transport plane), p.1042

A. Photos,

, Belgian paratroopers offloading from USAF C-47 at Stanleyville during Dragon Rouge. 1043 1043 Photo courtesy of Getty Images

, Belgian troops offload equipment at Stanleyville airport. (Note USAF C-47)

, Belgian paratroops fight their way through Stanleyville. The bodies of several Europeans killed by Simba rebels lie on the ground

, Makasi commandos make their way to Kilometre 8

, Survivors of the Stanleyville massacre arrive in Brussels, 1045.

R. The-mrr's-manuel-artime and . Chavez,

, 1045 Courtesy of Getty Images

A. Courtesy-of,

. J. The-makasi-navy, C. Hawes, R. Left, and . Chavez, , p.1048

. Ibid,

P. Courtesy and R. Pichardo,

, The Makasi naval force, 1049.

T. Swift-boat, L. Gitana, and . Tanganyika, , p.1050, 1965.

. Ibid, Courtesy of Roberto Pichardo, 1050.

, Cuban Exile naval force, Lake Tanganyika, circa, 1051.

&. Eulogio and . Papo, Reyes (left) with member of 5 Commando (naval crew), Lake Tanganyika. 1052 1051 Photo courtesy of Manny Pichardo

. Ibid,

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G. Vanthemsche, G. Et-portée, and . Du, Plan décennal, du Congo Belge (1949-1959), (Brussels: Académie Royale des Sciences d'Outremer, 1994.

G. Vanthemsche, . Belgium, and . Congo, , 1885.

A. W. Venter and . Dog, Fighting other People's Wars, 2006.

F. Villafaña and R. , Cold War in the Congo: The Confrontation of Cuban Military Forces, pp.1960-1967, 2009.

L. Waldron, T. With-hartman, and U. Sacrifice, John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for the Coup in Cuba, and the Murder of JFK, 2005.

T. Weiner, Legacy of the Ashes: The History of the CIA, 2007.

S. Weissman, American Foreign Policy in the Congo, 1960.

W. E. Weyl, American World Policies, 1918.

H. F. Weiss, Political Protest in the Congo: The Parti Solidaire Africain during the Independence Struggle, 1967.

C. Welch and . Emerson, Anatomy of a Rebellion, 1980.

S. L. Weigart, Traditional Religion and Guerilla Warfare in Modern Africa, 1996.

P. D. Williams and . War, Africa, 2016.

S. Williams, The UN, the Cold War and White Supremacy in Africa, 2011.

C. Young, Politics in the Congo: Decolonization and Independence, 1965.

C. Young and T. Turner, The Rise and Decline of the Zairian State, 2013.

T. Zoellner, Uranium: War, Energy and the Rock that Shaped the World, 2009.

, NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (Classed by date of publication)

, Stairs Ill-fated Party: The Death of the Leaders of the Katanga Expedition, p.24

G. Reno, China Reds Charge US. Active Help to Chiang in Strife, Troops Fire on Mob: Machado Refuses to Quit, 1933.

J. Sibley, ;. Anonyme, and . Léopoldville, The Congo's 'Quiet Man', Antoine Gizenga, Doubts as Congo Africans' First Election Approaches, p.20, 1958.

A. , , 1960.

H. Bigart, Europeans Quit Congo Province, 1960.

H. Bigart, Lumumba Victor in Congo Voting

J. , Belgian Congo Threats Spur European's Exodus, New York Times, 1960.

H. Gilroy, Divisive Efforts Spread in Congo, New York Times, p.28, 1960.

J. , Logistics for Troops in Congo A Nightmare for UN Officers, Mr. Kalonji Flees and Declares war on Mr. Lumumba, 1960.

H. Tanner, Lumumba Bids UN Give Up Controls or Face Ouster

. September, Baltika Enters the Atlantic, 1960.

H. Tanner, Lumumba Staff Men Arrested -Soviet Aides to Leave, p.17

. September, , 1960.

E. A. Morrow, Premier Watches Pickets in Harbor, New York Times, 1960.

H. Tanner, Comeback by Lumumba Hinted

, Army Chief Says Reds Sent Letter: Message, Allegedly Signed by Chou, Promised Funds and Possible Arms Help, New York Times, 1960.

P. Hoffman, Lumumba Bounces Back: Unpredictable Deposed Congo Premier Manipulates Crowds as He Continues to Maneuver for Power, Mobutu Adamant on Ghanaian Aide, 1960.

D. Middleton, Baluba Tribe's Revenge on Lumumba Supporters, The Times, 1960.

L. Garrison, Cuba Began Role in Zanzibar in '61: Havana's Part in Revolution Outlined in Washington -Guerilla Course Cited, New York Times, 1962.

&. U. , Missionaries Rescued in Congo, 1964.

, Kivu Rebels Rout Troops of Congo, New York Times, vol.172, p.1, 1964.

J. and A. Lukas, South Africans Recruited by Congo as Mercenaries, The Times, vol.23, 1964.

J. and A. Lukas, Katanga Capital Appears Retaken, The Congo: Help Wanted, 1964.

L. Garrison, White Mercenary Finds a Weird War in Congo, New York Times, 1964.

L. Garrison, Congo Rebels Kill 'Intellectuals' as Enemies of the Revolution

. October, , 1964.

L. Garrison, White Mercenaries Help Retake Key Port in Congo from Rebels, 1964.

L. Garrison, Mercenary Group Mutinies in Congo, New York Times, 1964.

L. Garrison, Rebels in Congo Seize US Doctor, Congo Troops Push North Towards Rebels at Kindu, 1964.

L. Garrison, Congo Rebels Call Foreign Hostages Prisoners of War, Congolese Seize Major Rebel City, 1964.

L. Garrison, , 1964.

L. Garrison, Congolese Find Chinese Ammunition Left by Rebels, p.18

. November, Rebels in Congo, Near Showdown, Shift Prisoners, New York Times, 1964.

, Britons Brought Back to Safety, The Times, 1964.

L. Garrison, 28 More White Hostages Found Slain in Stanleyville, p.28

. November, Soviet Sees Plot by West in Congo; Tells UN Council Tshombe is Puppet of 'Monopolies -Accuses US Banks, Hear Congo Troops Gain on Mercenaries, 1964.

H. Silva, Manuel Artime profile, 1977.

M. Seymour and . Hersh, CIA said to Have Aided Plotters who Overthrew Nkrumah in Ghana, New York Times, 1978.

J. Rothschild, Meet the biggest dealer in Miami's biggest industry, Fortune de Mobutu: les banques suisses trouvent 20,5 millions, 1982.

M. Fineman and D. Mascarenas, Bay of Pigs: the Secret Death of Pete Ray, Los Angeles Times, 1998.

T. Weiner, Trader in Weapons on a Grand Scale, vol.71, 1998.

N. Onishi, Nigerian Army said to Massacre Hundreds of Civilians, p.31

. October, Ce jour-là, 24 novembre 1964: nos paras sautent sur Stanleyville, The Economist, 2001.

S. Shane, Memories of a CIA Officer Resonate in a New Era, 2008.

S. Shane and L. R. Devlin, CIA Officer who Balked on a Congo Plot, is Dead, New York Times, vol.86, 2008.

E. Peuchot, Massacres of civilians by DR Congo army calls UN's role into question, The Telegraph, p.17, 2009.

E. Thomas, Congo-Zaïre: l'empire du crime permanent: le massacre de Bakwanga, 2012.

A. Billups and K. Walter, On Anniversary of Che Killing, CIA's Felix Rodriguez Remembers, 2013.

A. Lebor, Overt and Covert: 'The Brothers

J. Avlon, A beloved icon in death, in life Kennedy was hated by many, p.23

G. Garvin, Anniversary recalls Congo rescue by Miami Cubans, 2014.

G. Garvin, Rescue Reunion: Cuban -American CIA team meets Congo hostages in Kendall, 2014.

P. Chapman, Rotten fruit, Financial Times, 2015.

D. Searcey, UN Peacekeepers Accused of Rape in Central African Republic, New York Times, 2016.

D. Pilling, Gabon leader calls for western help to combat terrorist threat, Financial Times, p.16

T. Archdeacon, Arch: CIA to award Navy operative highest honor, p.21


F. Coppola and . Ford, Apocalypse Now, 1979.

E. Tahri and C. Jihan, An African Odyssey, DVD, 2007.

, 100 Years of US Consumer Spending: Data for the Nation, VARIOUS DIGITAL DOCUMENTS "5 Commando's Rules of Battle, p.7, 2006.

, A Deadly Mission: Belfast to Congo, BBC Television Productions, p.17, 2015.

T. Aspinall, 5 Commando's Rules of Battle, p.28, 2017.

T. Aspinall, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Public Law, vol.68, p.17, 1960.

L. Badoux, . Sonck, . Jean-pierre, and L. Hellström, Belfast family return to Congo to honour friends murdered in 1964 Simba rebellion, 2017.

S. Bergman, Chronology of the United Fruit Company, Small States and Alliances, date unknown, 2017.

I. Cobalt and . News, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2018.

V. Cook, Bernie Sanders and the Spiritual Case for Socialism, 2015.

G. Cousins, Danger does not deter NI family from Congo work, News Letter, 2017.

D. Dwight, Eisenhower: State of the Union, 1959.

, Ernesto Guevara's speech at the 19th General Assembly of the United Nations, p.11

, Ernesto Guevara speech in Santiago de Cuba, 1964.

, Ernesto Guevara's speech at the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria, The Che Reader, p.27, 1960.

H. Gambini and E. Guevara, Going Critical: Being Strategic with Our Mineral Resources, quoted as sources in "Ernesto "Che" Guevara, 1928.

L. Hancock, The Bay of Pigs and the US Navy, 2017.

G. K. Haines, CIA and Guatemala Assassination Proposals, CIA History Staff Analysis, pp.1952-1954, 1995.

S. Harry, F. John, and . Kennedy, Inaugural Address of President, 1961.

, Leo Szilard (1898-1964), JFK Assassination System Identification Form, pp.124-10222, 1964.

, Les Géants du Cuivre: Leçons tirées des Entreprises Etatiques Minières en RDC et en Zambie, Natural Resource Governance Institute, undated, 15, 2017.

, Managing Materials for a Twentieth-Century Military: A Stockpile History, The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb, p.17, 1973.

T. Mao-tse, On Protracted War, Selected Works of Mao Tse Tung, p.20, 1938.

, Mao Tse Tung in an interview with a Hsinhua News Agency correspondent, p.30, 1959.

D. Mclaughlin and H. John-kyle-gustafson, National Intelligence Estimate (NIE-62)", Present Political Situation in Guatemala and Possible Developments during 1952, p.7, 1906.

. September, Patrice Lumumba, First Prime Minister of the Congo, 1958.

. September, Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy in the Senate, Révolution Congolaise: Lumumba-Mulele-Kabila, vol.3, 1957.

J. W. Salacuse, The National Land Law System of Zaire, Secretary of State, John F. Dulles, Radio Address, p.17, 1954.

J. Subject and M. , Question concerning the Democratic Republic of the Congo, JFK Assassination System Identification Form, vol.239, issue.2, p.17, 1960.

J. Sonck, &. L'armée-privée-de-kasongo, and . Nyembo, , 2017.

J. Sonck, La Force Aérienne au Congo, p.28, 2017.

J. Sonck, L'échec de l'opération "Watch Chain, p.28, 2017.

J. Sonck, Speech of Dr. Fidel Castro at the UN General Assembly, p.23, 1960.

S. Squassoni, Governing Uranium in the United States, A Report of the CSIS Proliferation Prevention Program, p.25, 2014.

. Statoids, The Congo Question, Provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, p.21, 2017.

, The Beginning of Intelligence Analysis in CIA, 2017.

, The Beginning of Intelligence Analysis in CIA, The National Security Act, vol.253, issue.6, 1947.

S. , , p.21

, The Office of Strategic Services: The Forerunner of Today's CIA, 2016.

. The-world and . Bank, Congo, Dem. Rep, 2018.

. The-world-factbook, Africa: Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2018.

, United Nations Statistical Databases, 2018.

. Worldometers, Truman Doctrine: President Harry S. Truman's Address Before a Joint Session of Congress, DR Congo Population, 1947.

G. Bechtolsheimer, Breakfast with Mobutu: Congo, the United States and the Cold War, 1964.

, International Mercenary Asociation for Counter-Terrorism

, Makasi Legacy/Cuban Exile Veterans of the Congo, 1964.

, Commando (see, Mike Hoare) 124, 126, vol.224, p.241

, Commando (see, vol.275, pp.241-265

, Aerial Port Squadron, p.264

. Arbenz, , vol.209, p.338, 0208.

. Arkhangelsk, , p.92

C. Armée-nationale, , vol.348, p.349

, Armée Populaire de Libération, vol.153, p.344

, Army and Navy Munitions Board, vol.57, p.343

M. Artime, , p.215, 0205.

M. Asbury and . Harry, , p.227

, Batetela Rebellion, p.136

F. Batista, , vol.309, p.354

, Bayanzi tribe, 144 Baudouin of Belgium, vol.72, p.118

, Bay of Pigs Museum, vol.3, p.209

, Bay of Pigs, vol.433, p.436

L. , Belgian Communist Party, vol.65, p.100

B. Congo, , vol.425, p.436

. Belgian-katanga-company, , p.106

, Belgian Socialist Party, vol.65, p.328

, Belgian Technical Mission (see, MISTEBEL)

. Belgium, , vol.434, p.245

. Belorussia, , p.93

. Bendera, , p.292

T. Bengila, , vol.140, p.146

B. Bella, , vol.278, p.293

. Biafra, , vol.322, p.350

R. Bissell, , vol.87, p.204

R. Blanco, , vol.270, p.271

, 85 -opinion of Lumumba, 87 -and Congo Crisis, 129 -creation of, 171 -in Albania, 175 -in China, vol.442, pp.183-190, 0200.

L. Conference-of, , vol.68, p.109, 1959.

, Congo Crisis, vol.342, p.430

, Congolese Air Force (Force Aérienne Congolaise) (see, Makasi), vol.16, p.231

D. Varona and . Frank, , p.210

L. Devlin, 130 -thoughts on USSR in DRC, vol.75, p.96

. Greece, , vol.389, p.431

, Greek Communist Party, p.138

D. Grinwis, , vol.158, p.273

, Groupes Mobiles, p.121

L. R. Groves, , vol.58

G. Bay, , vol.24, p.200

. Guatemala, , vol.5, p.443

E. Guevara, Guatemala, 201 -and UFCO, 201 -in Mexico, 202 -and Fidel Castro, 202 -and Batista, vol.35, pp.288-308

P. Guillot, , p.239

. Guinea, 96 -armed forces at Bakwanga, 79 -and Soviet Union, vol.91, p.92

, Gulf Oil, p.63

. Katanga, , vol.431, p.106

, Katangan Air Force (see also Force Aérienne Katangaise), vol.32, p.336

, Katangese Gendarmes, vol.116, p.223

, Katanga Union, p.109

G. Kennan, , vol.46, p.47

P. Kennedy and . John, 437 -view of Congo Crisis, 129 -and Bay of Pigs, vol.436, p.234

R. Kennedy, , p.212

K. , , vol.42, p.435

J. Kenyatta and . Mau, 431 -at Fifth Pan-African Congress, 43, -and League Against Imperialism, 43 -and Kenyan African Union, vol.42, p.44

J. Nehru, , p.94

, Négritude movement, vol.41, p.142

, Negro Improvement Association, p.117

V. Nendaka, , vol.88, p.323

. Neto, , vol.294, p.335

, New Model Army, p.20

J. Ngosa, , vol.117

. Nicaragua, , vol.178, p.234

J. Nicholas, , vol.75, p.76

K. D. Nichols, , p.59

F. Nima, , vol.140, p.143

R. Nixon, , vol.52, p.204

K. Nkrumah, 439 -at Fifth Pan-African Congress, 41, -biography, 42, -and Marxism, 42 -and neocolonialism, 56 -and United Nations, vol.432, p.96

M. Noddyn and . Robert, , p.325

J. Noel, , p.203

P. Nothomb, , vol.160, p.273

. Nsc-68, , vol.48, p.407

N. Manifesto, , p.318

. Stanleyville, , vol.438, p.261

, Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, p.58

, Strategic and Critical Minerals Act, p.57, 1939.

, Strategic and Critical Minerals Act, p.58, 1946.

. Stauffer, James, vol.158, p.272

J. Stewart, , p.123

F. Sturgis, , vol.200, p.204

. Sub-saharan, , vol.53, p.296

, -military cooperation with Cuba, 233 -and decolonisation, 44 -economic interests in Africa, 128 -foreign policy, vol.444, p.64