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L'institution de l'expertise. : Une analyse des déterminants, des usages politiques et de la crédibilité scientifique de l'expertise, à partir du cas des expertises collectives INSERM et INRA

Abstract : Scientific expertise plays a growing role in the policymaking process in democracies. It shapes public problems and their solutions relatively autonomously from the election process. This role is explained by the increasing complexity of problems and solutions in technical societies.In this thesis, we investigate the function of scientific expertise that is deemed credible by policymakers. Unlike scholars in the Knowledge Literature and the Evidence-Based Policy movement, we do not intend to express universalist claims. Instead, we build a middle range theory: one of a type of use of a specific kind of expertise within a particular context. This triptych (type of use-type of expertise-type of context) permits us to reconcile two contradictory approaches of the use of expertise: one “externalist” explains the type of use of expertise by the particular context in which it is used, another “internalist” explains the type of the use by the intrinsic qualities of the specific kind of expertise.In order to do this, we investigate how policymakers within the French ministries for Health and Agriculture use INSERM and INRA collective expertise – an expertise method close to systematic literature reviews.We successively display: the specific criteria policymakers use to assess the credibility of expertise, their intended and effective use of such knowledge, the context in which they order an experts’ report. Our investigation allows us to test and organize a set of indicators and contextual factors of the type of use.We demonstrate that these INSERM and INRA collective expertise appear as an authoritarian and truthful discourse to actors involved in the public debate. They frame public problems and their solutions.We also explain how expertise gains its scientific credibility in the eyes of policymakers. On the basis of recent works in the fields of science and technology studies and communication studies fields, we establish that the credibility of INSERM and INRA collective expertise derives from the implementation of rhetorical and practical devices in their production. We show that such devices are not ready-to-use: their implementation requires a set of knowledge and know-how.We also demonstrate that the very nature and reputation of the expertise and its producers are the result of a long process in which researchers play a key role: their career, position, representation, thoughts, actions and interactions.This thesis constitutes a missing piece in the systematic exploration of the growth of collective expertise and systematic literature reviews in France in the last twenty years.It is based on a variety of qualitative methods (interviews, observations, archive, case studies) as well as quantitative methods (statistics descriptive, factor analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis)
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https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-02965270
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 13, 2020 - 10:24:53 AM
Last modification on : Sunday, October 25, 2020 - 7:06:41 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02965270, version 1

Citation

Vincent Caby. L'institution de l'expertise. : Une analyse des déterminants, des usages politiques et de la crédibilité scientifique de l'expertise, à partir du cas des expertises collectives INSERM et INRA. Science politique. Université de Bordeaux, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019BORD0007⟩. ⟨tel-02965270⟩

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