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Les catholiques français face à l'unification italienne (1856-1871). Une mobilisation internationale de masse entre politique et religion

Abstract : This dissertation examines the impacts of Italian unification on French Catholicism from 1856 to 1871. Whilst Catholics had until then been one of the imperial regime pillars, the support given by Napoleon III to the Italian national movement put an end to this situation. Because they were challenging the Pope's temporal power, the Italian events gave rise to a vast mobilisation of the faithful. Whilst this mobilisation has long been analysed by historians as a movement that mainly involved the clergy and the legitimist notables, this work shows it was actually a mass movement. This dissertation highlights the consequences of such involvement in political as well as religious matters. It shows the assimilation by Catholics of the classical means of modern political fight, used by the left as well as the right wing, and the elaboration of more original means, based on the politicisation of religious speech and practice. It replaces the mobilisation in the context of the Holy See’s diplomatic strategy, aimed at relying on the faithful. To do so, the dissertation analyses the enlistments in the pontifical army and the financial support provided by Catholics. Finally, the study shows the influence of the Roman question on several changes affecting Catholicism since the beginning of the century: the movement towards Rome, the affirmation of intransigent Catholicism as well as the new status of the laity in the Church. It is, in short, a way of alternative modernisation, built in opposition to the principles of liberal modernity, that this study intends to bring to light.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 15, 2020 - 4:40:24 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02936398, version 1

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Arthur Hérisson. Les catholiques français face à l'unification italienne (1856-1871). Une mobilisation internationale de masse entre politique et religion. Histoire. Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02936398⟩

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