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Dimensionner les mesures de compensation écologique : des outils opérationnels pour une meilleure appropriation par les acteurs de l’aménagement du territoire

Abstract : French regulations provide in its environmental code, the obligation for a land developer to avoid, reduce and finally offset (ARO sequence) significant residual negative impacts caused by its installations, structures, works, or activities on biodiversity. Different authors, in dedicate scientific literature, conclude on the weakness in mitigation hierarchy implementation. One of the reasons of this weakness is the lack of methods shared by all stakeholders (applicants/developers, environmental consultants, public regulators) to assess the ecological equivalence and the attainment of the No Net Loss Goal. This is linked in particular, to the scientific and technical complexity of the subject, as shown by scientific publications. Proposing assessments methods therefore is an important issue both for ARO practitioners and for researchers. Several teams of researchers are working in France to propose offsetting methods, with a stated objective of practicality (we name it “operationality”), meaning to offer a tool "which is ready to start operating, to provide the desired optimal result, to carry out an operation perfectly” (Larousse dictionary). However, the research work carried out on these methods show that the practical dimension isn’t really done, in favor of the technical dimension (choice of ecological indicators, calculation formulas). We formulate the following hypothesis: (1) practical issues are not taken into account during the design phase of methods, (2) thus the methods developed are not practical, (3) this can constitute a weakness to enhance their application by ARO sequence’s stakeholders (applicants/developers, environmental consultants, public regulators), and (4) it’s possible to act on the method design in the aim to a better operationality. Our problematic of research is: how to design practical methods to assess and sizing ecological equivalence, under no net loss of biodiversity policy, in order the stakeholders are able to use these methods more effectively? In this aim, we will use concepts and methods from ergonomics research, this discipline seeks to understand the interactions between humans and other components of a system. We will analyze the practices of the ARO practitioners and we will propose a definition of an operational tool accompanied by several criterion, as well as guidelines for an operational design process inspired by user-centered design theory. We analyze how designing process of seven French methods deals with operationality. Then, after a test with one of the studied methods, we suggest improvements toward more operationality. Our approach opens up perspectives to better understanding the challenges of the science-policy interface, in the field of environmental planning, and proposing a better consideration of operationality in applied research projects to enhance ARO sequence application, in the aim of a NNL policy.
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Agnès Mechin. Dimensionner les mesures de compensation écologique : des outils opérationnels pour une meilleure appropriation par les acteurs de l’aménagement du territoire. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry Montpellier 3, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-02920310⟩

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