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Dimensionner les mesures de compensation écologique : des outils opérationnels pour une meilleure appropriation par les acteurs de l’aménagement du territoire

Abstract : In the global context of alarming biodiversity loss, French regulations require developers to avoid, reduce and finally offset (ARO sequence) the ecological impacts caused by their projects with the aim of no net loss of biodiversity (NNL). Different authors, in dedicate scientific literature, conclude on the weakness in mitigation hierarchy implementation. One of the reasons is the lack of methods shared by all stakeholders (applicants/developers, environmental consultants, public regulators) to assess the ecological equivalence and the achievement of the No Net Loss goal. This is linked, in particular, to the scientific and technical complexity of the subject, as shown by scientific publications. Proposing methods for assessing the attainment of NNL is an important issue for ARO practitioners and for researchersSeveral teams of researchers are working in France to propose offsetting methods, with a stated objective of practicality, meaning to offer a tool "which is ready to start operating, to provide the desired optimal result, to carry out an operation perfectly” (Larousse dictionary). However, the research work focused on these methods show that the operational dimension isn’t really considered, in favor of the technical dimension (choice of ecological indicators, calculation formulas). We formulate the following hypothesis: (1) operational issues are not taken into account during the design phase of methods, (2) thus the methods developed are not operational, (3) this can constitute a weakness to enhance their application by ARO sequence’s stakeholders (applicants/developers, environmental consultants, public regulators), and (4) it’s possible to act on the method design in the aim to a better practicality.Our problematic of research is: how to design operational methods to assess and sizing ecological equivalence, under no net loss of biodiversity policy, with a view that the stakeholders (developers, environmental consultants, public regulators) are able to use these methods more effectively. In this aim, we will use concepts and methods from Ergonomics research. This discipline studies the interactions between humans and other components of a system.We analyze the practices of the ARO practitioners. We propose a definition of an operational tool accompanied by several criterion, as well as guidelines for an operational design process inspired by user-centered design theory.We analyze how designing process of seven French methods deals with practicality. Then, after a test with one of the studied methods, we suggest improvements.Our approach opens up perspectives to better understanding the challenges of the science-policy interface, in the field of environmental planning, and proposing a better consideration of practicality in applied research projects to enhance ARO sequence application, in the aim of a NNL policy.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 5, 2021 - 12:20:08 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03097343, version 2


Agnès Méchin. Dimensionner les mesures de compensation écologique : des outils opérationnels pour une meilleure appropriation par les acteurs de l’aménagement du territoire. Géographie. Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III, 2020. Français. ⟨NNT : 2020MON30006⟩. ⟨tel-03097343v2⟩



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