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« Saré » et urbanisme : Traditions et pratiques architecturales peul à l’épreuve de la modernité. Le cas de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun)

Abstract : This thesis raises the problem of failing to take into account socio-cultural and identity markers which characterizes the originality of the Sudano-Sahelian city, in urban planning and development policies. Faced with the growing influence of modernity on traditions and morpho-architectural practices, this failure is in itself bearer of the erosion germ, or even the disappearance of heritage elements. The objective of this research was therefore to show that the support of urban dynamics through joint institutional actions that take into account all local realities, namely: environmental, social, cultural, economic, political, historical realities, is essential in sustainable urban development and in the preservation of cultural and regional identity capital. To achieve this, we adopted a methodology that favoured in-depth observations of the urban reality of Ngaoundéré selected for the case study of the problem stated. These observations which were based on personal experiences in our triple posture of long-standing citizen of the city, actor of planning and urban management, researcher, justified the choice of the hypothetico-deductive method, to attempt to capture the reality of the object throughout the Sudano-Sahelian zone of Cameroon. The surveys conducted reached one thousand household heads selected on the basis of several sociological, geographical and economic criteria, as well as all the actors at the heart of the urban planning and management process (municipal executives, decentralized technical administrations, the civil society…). Taking into account these two categories of actors allowed us to carry out two diagnoses (community and institutional), which provided a large database to capture the reality studied. Spatial analysis completed these diagnoses and allowed us to appreciate the dynamics of the urban composition. Two main findings are highlighted. The first confirms the observation of the morpho-architectural changes that are accompanied by a disorganization of the old urban fabric. The second reports the acceleration of erosion, better, the disappearance of known socio-cultural and identity markers of the Sudano-Sahelian city. Thus, traditions and Fulani morpho-architectural practices are faced with modernity and urge a redefinition of urban policy likely to take into account the issues of preservation of these old achievements. In response to this problem, the originality of this thesis lies in the proposal of ways to improve urban space planning through two sets of projects that integrate all the spatial scales of the urban milieu (the perimeter of the city, the neighbourhood whose block is the operational unit and the saré). The operationalization of this proposal would imply for the Government to set up a popular participatory framework in urban planning through assisted self-construction, involving all the stakeholders of the process.
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Mohamadou Guidado. « Saré » et urbanisme : Traditions et pratiques architecturales peul à l’épreuve de la modernité. Le cas de Ngaoundéré (Cameroun). Géographie. Université de Douala (Cameroun), 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02614874⟩

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