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La territorialisation des énergies renouvelables en France

Abstract : The energy transition to low-carbon energy is now a dominant paradigm in energy-related public policies. It is a central focus of work for the French regions. The evolution of their relationship with energy is both in line with European experiences and in the wake of a national incentive for transition. The objective of this thesis is to study the territorialization of renewable energy (RE) production according to its different origins (biomass, solar, geothermal, wind and hydro). We propose to assess the regions' performance in diversifying the energy mix in 2015 and over the period 1990-2015. Multidimensional data analysis methods were used. A typology of French regions characteristic of the regional development of renewable energies (RE) in France in 2015 is proposed, it highlights the emergence of five typical RE development profiles that are highly contrasted according to the RE sectors. The analysis of evolving data adopted to study regional dynamics in terms of RE promotion over the period 1990-2015 highlights four sub-periods of RE development. The Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) over each sub-period has highlighted three distinct types of RE development profiles and a certain stability in the trajectories of the regions. This very stable structure shows that disparities between regions in the early 1990s persisted throughout the period. Finally, the study of the determinants of RE consumption at the regional level made it possible to identify the main levers favouring their deployment. Indeed, we have shown through the estimation of a VECM model that in the short term, past economic growth measured by the real GDP growth rate positively affects RE consumption, while nuclear and industrial production per capita have a negative impact. In the long term, estimates from the FM-OLS and DOLS models indicate that the level of economic development, measured by the logarithm of GDP per capita, has a positive impact on the share of RE in final energy consumption. The results also show that research and development spending favours the use of REs, which are largely dependent on population density. Finally, we show that at the regional level, the weight of "green" parties has a positive influence on the development of renewable energies.
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Ferdaous Roussafi. La territorialisation des énergies renouvelables en France. Economies et finances. Normandie Université, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019NORMC045⟩. ⟨tel-02519208⟩

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