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Le phénomène de l'habitat précaire à Yaoundé : mécanismes internes et gouvernance urbaine

Abstract : The present thesis has as an ambition to understand the mechanisms of the production of the precarious habitat in Yaounde and the strategies of the various private and public actors to reabsorb it. It results from a methodology which combines the document retrieval, the direct observations, the investigations by questionnaire near a representative sample of the households of the districts with precarious habitat of Yaounde, and the talks at the chiefs of districts, persons in charge of associations and ONG of Yaounde, working in the improvement of the districts with precarious habitat. It comes out from this study that the districts with precarious habitat of the town of Yaounde develop primarily on the slopes of steep hills and in the funds of marshy valleys. They pose real problems which push the urban powers on the one hand to shave them (Municipality) and on the other hand to implement at it strategies and/or programs of improvement (the State through the PPAB and the PDUE; ONG, associations of the districts, individuals, etc). Indeed, the precarious habitat in the studied districts first of all occupied the slopes of steep hills, then was spread out in the marshes, zones in theory not aedificandi. These districts gather nearly 90% of the population of the city. The latter, which comes from various geographical horizons, does not have a land title guaranteeing the property to him and the land transactions are done there in the illegality. The dwellings as for them, are built by drudges who employ materials of fortune. The districts with precarious habitat of the town of Yaounde have real problems of cleansing. The evacuation of solid waste constitutes a thorny question for the households, especially in terms of access to the services of collection of quality. The distribution network of electricity present in a permanent way of the failures, and the water provision is done either in sub-renting starting from a tap pertaining to a individual, or on the terminal fountain, or with a source or in a water well. The anarchistic occupation of the slopes of steep hills and the funds of marshy valleys is in the beginning many “natural” phenomena of which erosion, landslides and floods. The strategies of treatment of the precarious habitat by the public urban powers are directed on the one hand towards the abandonment without compensation for the populations not having neither land title, nor building permit, and on the other hand towards opening-up by reorganization. Several ONG and associations of the districts contribute to the cleansing of certain districts with precarious habitat in the town of Yaounde. Also, the populations of these districts employ techniques of fortune to stabilize the occupied mediums and to thus make vis-a-vis the hydrological and geomorphological problems. The operations of reorganization of the sectors with precarious dwellings and of rehousing of the populations installed in zones at real risk, are operations of installation adapted in the socio-economic context yaoundéen. For a more effective improvement, the State must imperatively carry out normative and administrative structural changes various scales. The legislation should thus plan the option of a refitting of the precarious sectors of the districts with a long-term aim to standardize the land situation their inhabitants. The public authorities must become aware of the utility to integrate the problems of the districts into precarious habitat in the planning of the evolution of their territory.
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Martin Luther Djatcheu Kamgain. Le phénomène de l'habitat précaire à Yaoundé : mécanismes internes et gouvernance urbaine. Géographie. Université de Bretagne occidentale - Brest, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018BRES0009⟩. ⟨tel-02480681v2⟩



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