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Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau : Chimiste et Professeur au Siècle des Lumières

Abstract : Guyton de Morveau is mainly known as one of Lavoisier’s collaborators in the reform of the chemical nomenclature. The origin of this partnership is generally described as the result of Guyton's conversion to the new chemical theory of Lavoisier. But an inquiry into his scientific and teaching activities reveals that it seems more reasonable to see the relationship between these two chemists as a convergence of efforts to lead to a satisfactory explanation of the new phenomena observed in laboratory. Guyton enjoyed a wide international recognition. His reputation was based on the breadth and depth of his theoretical thought and on the quality of his experimental work. Close to Macquer, Guyton understood all chemical reactions in terms of dissolution and crystallization processes governed by the law of gravitation. His theoretical framework combining the fire-phlogiston doctrine of Rouelle’s disciples with Boerhaave's views on solvents allowed him to account for most new experimental discoveries. Guyton built up his reputation through his editorial activity and his courses of chemistry. Students came from all over Europe to Dijon to attend his courses. His pedagogical activity constitutes a good example of the importance of the teaching of chemistry in a provincial academy during the second half of the 18th century. During the Revolution, Guyton de Morveau entered in politics and took an active part in the reorganization of the French research and educational system of Republican France.
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Ronei Mocellin. Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau : Chimiste et Professeur au Siècle des Lumières. Histoire, Philosophie et Sociologie des sciences. Université Paris Ouest (Paris X – Nanterre), 2009. Français. ⟨tel-02318992⟩



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