Traffic congestion and pollution regulations in polycentric cities : Urban forms and road pricing.

Abstract : Urbanization in developed and developing countries has major drawbacks regarding air pollution, Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and congestion externalities due to transport in car-based cities. In this thesis, we study the effects of urban design on pollution, congestion, traveled distances and welfare. We build a theoretical model of residential choices with pollution and congestion externalities arising from commuting, where the location of jobs within the city is endogenous. Finally we collect data from French metropolitan areas to conduct an empirical analysis of spatial determinants of commuting time and distances. This thesis highlights the need of a cautious approach to implement some urban policies that would guarantee a sustainable development of a city. A polycentric city may be a desirable city or not depending on the (i) accessibility of workplaces, (ii) the quality of road infrastructure (high speed), (iii) the employment density and (iv) the distribution of population and workplaces in cities. This thesis also demonstrates the significant role of the housing demand on urban structure when the latter is endogenous in a context of unpriced transport congestion. Some urban densification project might reconsider and quantify the negative externalities (congestion and pollution) which arise when the population grows within any city. These externalities are indirect costs due to the adjustment of the housing and transport demand in the long run.
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Romain Gaté. Traffic congestion and pollution regulations in polycentric cities : Urban forms and road pricing.. Economies and finances. Université Rennes 1, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018REN1G017⟩. ⟨tel-02139411⟩

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