F. Büchel and A. Mertens, Overeducation, undereducation, and the theory of career mobility, Applied Economics, vol.36, issue.8, pp.803-816, 2004.

S. Budría and A. I. Moro-egido, Education, educational mismatch, and wage inequality: Evidence for Spain, Economics of Education Review, vol.27, issue.3, pp.332-341, 2008.

Q. Capsada-munsech, The role of social origin and field of study on graduates overeducation: The case of Italy. Higher Education, vol.69, pp.779-807, 2015.

Q. Capsada-munsech, Overeducation: Concept, theories, and empirical evidence, Sociology Compass, issue.10, p.11, 2017.

D. Carroll and M. Tani, Over-education of recent higher education graduates: New Australian panel evidence, Economics of Education Review, vol.32, pp.207-218, 2013.

D. Carroll and M. Tani, Job search as a determinant of graduate overeducation: Evidence from Australia, Education Economics, vol.23, issue.5, pp.631-644, 2015.

E. , The skill matching challenge: Analysing skill mismatch and policy implications, 2010.

D. Chapman and C. Chien, Higher education in Asia: Expanding out, expanding up, 2014.

D. W. Chapman and S. Lindner, Degrees of integrity: The threat of corruption in higher education, Studies in Higher Education, vol.41, issue.2, pp.247-268, 2016.

O. Charlot and B. Decreuse, Self-selection in education with matching frictions, Labour Economics, vol.12, issue.2, pp.251-267, 2005.

M. Chatterji, Tertiary education and economic growth, Regional Studies, vol.32, issue.4, pp.349-354, 1998.
DOI : 10.1080/00343409850117807

C. Chen, P. Sok, and K. Sok, Benchmarking potential factors leading to education quality: A study of Cambodian higher education, Quality Assurance in Education, vol.15, issue.2, pp.128-148, 2007.

A. Chevalier and J. Lindley, Overeducation and the skills of UK graduates, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society, vol.172, issue.2, pp.307-337, 2009.

R. Chiburis and M. Lokshin, Maximum likelihood and two-step estimation of an ordered-probit selection model, The Stata Journal, vol.7, issue.2, pp.167-182, 2007.

K. Chua and N. Chun, search of a better match: Qualification mismatches in developing Asia. ADB Working Papers Series, 2016.

N. Chun, R. Hasan, M. H. Rahman, and M. A. Ulubasoglu, The role of middle class in economic development: What do cross-country data show?, Review of Development Economics, vol.21, issue.2, pp.404-424, 2017.

E. Cohn and S. P. Khan, The wage effects of overschooling revisited, Labour Economics, vol.2, issue.1, pp.67-76, 1995.

E. Congregado, J. Iglesias, J. M. Millan, and C. Roman, Incidence, effects, dynamics and routes out of overqualification in Europe: A comprehensive analysis distinguishing by employment status, Applied Economics, vol.48, issue.5, pp.411-445, 2016.

G. Croce and E. Ghignoni, Demand and supply of skilled labour and overeducation in Europe: A country-level analysis, Comparative Economic Studies, vol.54, issue.2, pp.413-439, 2012.

M. B. Cuesta, Youth labour market integration in Spain: Search time, job duration and skill mismatch, Spanish Economic Review, vol.7, issue.3, pp.191-208, 2005.

S. D'amico, Higher education and skills for the labor market in Cambodia, Tech. Rep.). HRINC, 2010.

N. Damodar, Basic econometrics. The Mc-Graw Hill, 2004.

W. J. Darity and A. H. Goldsmith, Social psychology, unemployment, and macroeconomics, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.10, issue.1, pp.121-140, 1996.

M. A. Davia, S. Mcguinness, and P. J. Connell, Determinants of regional differences in rates of overeducation in Europe, Social science research, vol.63, pp.67-80, 2017.

R. Dekker, A. De-grip, and H. Heijke, The effects of training and overeducation on career mobility in a segmented labour market, International Journal of Manpower, vol.23, issue.2, pp.106-125, 2002.

M. M. De-oliveira, M. C. Santos, and B. F. Kiker, The role of human capital and technological change in overeducation, Economics of Education Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.199-206, 2000.

S. Dessus, Human capital and growth: The recovered role of education systems, 1999.

A. Diem, Overeducation among graduates from universities of applied sciences: Determinants and consequences, Journal of Economic & Financial Studies, vol.3, issue.02, pp.63-77, 2015.

E. Di-gropello, Putting higher education to work: Skills and research for growth in East Asia, 2011.

D. Pietro and G. , Technological change, labor markets, and low-skill, lowtechnology traps, Technological forecasting and social change, vol.69, issue.9, pp.885-895, 2002.

P. Dolton and M. A. Silles, The effects of over-education on earnings in the graduate labour market, Economics of Education Review, vol.27, issue.2, pp.125-139, 2008.

P. Dolton and A. Vignoles, The incidence and effects of overeducation in the UK graduate labour market, Economics of Education Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.179-198, 2000.

P. Domadenik, D. Farcnik, and F. Pastore, Horizontal mismatch in the labour market of graduates: The role of signalling, IZA Discussion Paper, issue.7527, pp.1-24, 2013.

R. Dore, The diploma disease. Education, qualification and development, 1976.

C. R. Dougherty, Manpower forecasting and manpower-development planning in the United Kingdom. Forecasting Skilled Manpower Needs: The Experience of Eleven Countries, UNESCO, 1985.

G. J. Duncan and S. D. Hoffman, The incidence and wage effects of overeducation, Economics of Education Review, vol.1, issue.1, pp.75-86, 1981.

, Economic Institue of Cambodia (EIC) and International Labour Organization (ILO), 2006.

, Bridging Thailand's Labor Gap, Economic Intelligent Center (EIC), 2014.

W. Eltis, The classical theory of economic growth, The classical theory of economic growth, pp.310-338, 2000.

, Survey of ASEAN employers on skills and competitiveness, 2014.

, Measuring Skills Mismatch, European Commission, 2015.

. Eurostat, Statistical approaches to the measurement of skills, 2016.

S. Farooq, Mismatch between education and occupation: A case study of Pakistani graduates. The Pakistan Development Review, pp.531-552, 2011.

M. M. Ferreyra, At a Crossroads: Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean, 2017.

G. S. Fields, Labor market analysis for developing countries, pp.1-17, 2010.

A. Filiztekin, Education-occupation mismatch in Turkish labor market, MPRA Paper, issue.35123, pp.1-20, 2011.

C. M. Fleming and P. Kler, I'm too clever for this job: A bivariate probit analysis on overeducation and job satisfaction in Australia, Applied Economics, vol.40, issue.9, pp.1123-1138, 2008.

S. Flisi, V. Goglio, E. C. Meroni, M. Rodrigues, and E. Vera-toscano, Measuring occupational mismatch: Overeducation and overskill in Europe-Evidence from PIAAC, Social Indicators Research, vol.131, issue.3, pp.1211-1249, 2017.

M. Foraci, Better education and economic opportunities: Towards a life well-valued, 2016.

D. Ford, Cambodian accreditation: An uncertain beginning, International Higher Education, issue.33, pp.12-14, 2015.

R. H. Frank, Why women earn less: The theory and estimation of differential overqualification, The American Economic Review, vol.68, issue.3, pp.360-373, 1978.

R. Freeman, The overeducated American, 1976.

G. Gal, G. Kaplan, R. Gross, and I. Levav, Status inconsistency and common mental disorders in the Israel-based world mental health survey. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, vol.43, pp.999-1003, 2008.

F. Green and S. Mcintosh, Is there a genuine under-utilization of skills amongst the over-qualified?, Applied Economics, vol.39, issue.4, pp.427-439, 2007.

F. Green and Y. Zhu, Overqualification, job dissatisfaction, and increasing dispersion in the returns to graduate education, Oxford Economic Papers, vol.62, issue.4, pp.740-763, 2010.

W. Groot, . Van-den, and H. M. Brink, Overeducation in the labor market: A meta-analysis, Economics of Education Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.149-158, 2000.

J. Guironnet and M. Jaoul-grammare, Does over-education influence French economic growth?, Economics Bulletin, vol.29, issue.2, pp.1190-1200, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00430047

K. Gyimah-brempong and M. Wilson, Human capital and economic growth: Is Africa different, Journal of African Development, vol.7, issue.1, pp.73-109, 2005.

N. Habibi, Irans overeducation crisis: Causes and ramifications, 2015.

N. Habibi, Higher education policies and overeducation in Turkey, European Journal of Higher Education, vol.7, issue.4, pp.440-449, 2017.

N. Habibi and F. Hamidi, Why are Egyptian youth burning their university diplomas? The overeducation crisis in Egypt, 2016.

M. Hagedorn and I. Manovskii, Job selection and wages over the business cycle, The American Economic Review, vol.103, issue.2, pp.771-803, 2013.

J. F. Hair, W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, R. E. Anderson, and R. L. Tatham, , 2009.

, Multivariate data analysis

M. D. Hakura, M. M. Hussain, M. M. Newiak, V. Thakoor, and M. F. Yang, Inequality, gender gaps and economic growth: Comparative evidence for Sub-Saharan Africa, 2016.

M. J. Handel, A. Valerio, and M. L. Sánchez-puerta, Accounting for mismatch in low-and middle-income countries, 2016.

M. N. Hansen and A. Mastekaasa, Social origins and academic performance at university, European Sociological Review, vol.22, issue.3, pp.277-291, 2006.

E. A. Hanushek, Economic growth in developing countries: The role of human capital, Economics of Education Review, vol.37, pp.204-212, 2013.

E. A. Hanushek and L. Woessmann, Schooling, educational achievement, and the Latin American growth puzzle, Journal of Development Economics, vol.99, issue.2, pp.497-512, 2012.

E. A. Hanushek and L. Wößmann, The role of education quality for economic growth, 2007.

J. Hartog, Over-education and earnings: Where are we, where should we go?, Economics of Education Review, vol.19, issue.2, pp.131-147, 2000.

J. Hartog and H. Oosterbeek, Education, allocation and earnings in the Netherlands: Overschooling?, Economics of Education Review, vol.7, issue.2, pp.185-194, 1988.

J. J. Heckman, Sample selection bias as a specification error, Econometrica, issue.47, pp.153-161, 1979.

P. Herrera-idárraga, E. López-bazo, and E. Motellón, Double penalty in returns to education: Informality and educational mismatch in the Colombian labour market, Journal of Development Studies, vol.51, issue.12, pp.1683-1701, 2015.

R. Hjalmarsson, H. Holmlund, and M. J. Lindquist, The effect of education on criminal convictions and incarceration: Causal evidence from micro-data, The Economic Journal, vol.125, issue.587, pp.1290-1326, 2015.

D. Holland, I. Liadze, C. Rienzo, and D. Wilkinson, The relationship between graduates and economic growth across countries, 2013.

C. Holmes, Has the expansion of higher education led to greater economic growth?, National Institute Economic Review, vol.224, issue.1, pp.29-47, 2013.

Y. Hu, Oversupply of college graduates? Structural mismatch! Retrieved, 2013.

, Key Indicators of the Labour Market Ninth edition (Report). International Labour Organization, International Labour Office, 2016.

, Employment planning (Report). International Labour Organization, 1984.

B. G. Link, M. C. Lennon, and B. P. Dohrenwend, Socioeconomic status and depression: The role of occupations involving direction, control, and planning, 1993.

, American Journal of Sociology, vol.98, issue.6, pp.1351-1387

N. V. Loayza, Informality in the process of development and growth, The World Economy, vol.39, issue.12, pp.1856-1916, 2016.

R. Lucas, On the mechanics of economic development, Journal of Monetary Economics, vol.22, pp.3-42, 1988.

S. Madhur, Cambodia's skill gap: An anatomy of issues and policy options, CDRI Working Paper Series, issue.98, pp.1-37, 2014.

S. Madhur, Cambodia tomorrow: Development research priorities for a middle income country, CDRI Working Paper Series, issue.01, pp.1-12, 2014.

B. Mahy, F. Rycx, and G. Vermeylen, Educational mismatch and firm productivity: Do skills, technology and uncertainty matter, De Economist, vol.163, issue.2, pp.233-262, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s10645-015-9251-2

URL : https://dipot.ulb.ac.be/dspace/bitstream/2013/194681/1/wp15007.pdf

N. Mak, A current update of higher education in Southeast Asian countries: The case of Cambodia, Regional Seminar on Higher Education in Southeast Asian Countries: A Current Update, 2005.

M. A. Maltarich, G. Reilly, and A. J. Nyberg, Objective and subjective overqualification: Distinctions, relationships, and a place for each in the literature, Industrial and Organizational Psychology, vol.4, issue.2, pp.236-239, 2011.

B. Mccormick, A theory of signalling during job search, employment efficiency, and stigmatised jobs, The Review of Economic Studies, vol.57, issue.2, pp.299-313, 1990.

K. Mcgoldrick and J. Robst, Gender differences in overeducation: A test of the theory of differential overqualification, American Economic Review, vol.86, issue.2, pp.280-284, 1996.

S. Mcguinness, Overeducation in the labour market, Journal of Economic Surveys, vol.20, issue.3, pp.387-418, 2006.

S. Mcguinness, How biased are the estimated wage impacts of overeducation? A propensity score matching approach, Applied Economics Letters, vol.15, issue.2, pp.145-149, 2008.

S. Mcguinness, F. Mcginnity, and P. J. Connell, Changing returns to education during a boom? The case of Ireland, Labour, vol.23, pp.197-221, 2009.

S. Mcguinness and K. Pouliakas, Deconstructing Theories of Overeducation in Europe: A wage decomposition approach, Skill mismatch in labor markets, pp.81-127, 2017.

S. Mcguinness, K. Pouliakas, and P. Redmond, How useful is the concept of skills mismatch?, 2017.

S. Mcguinness and P. J. Sloane, Labour market mismatch among UK graduates: An analysis using REFLEX data, Economics of Education Review, vol.30, issue.1, pp.130-145, 2011.

A. Mehta, J. Felipe, P. Quising, and S. Camingue, Overeducation in developing economies: How can we test for it, and what does it mean?, Economics of Education Review, vol.30, issue.6, pp.1334-1347, 2011.

V. Meliciani and D. Radicchia, Informal networks, spatial mobility and overeducation in the Italian labour market, The Annals of Regional Science, vol.56, issue.2, pp.513-535, 2016.
DOI : 10.1007/s00168-016-0752-y

J. Mincer, Schooling, experience, and earnings, 1974.

J. Mincer, Education and unemployment, 1991.

, Ministry of Commerce (MoC) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in Cambodia, 2014.

C. E. Montenegro and H. A. Patrinos, Comparable estimates of returns to schooling around the world, 2014.

G. Montt, The causes and consequences of field-of-study mismatch, 2015.

C. P. Morano, The determinants of overeducation: Evidence from the Italian labour market, vol.9, pp.681-698, 2014.

R. R. Nelson and E. S. Phelps, Investment in humans, technological diffusion, and economic growth. The American economic review, vol.56, pp.69-75, 1966.

Y. C. Ng, Overeducation and undereducation and their effect on earnings: Evidence from Hong Kong, Pacific Economic Review, vol.6, issue.3, pp.401-418, 1986.

F. Noorbakhsh, A. Paloni, and A. Youssef, Human capital and FDI inflows to developing countries: New empirical evidence, World development, vol.29, issue.9, pp.1593-1610, 2001.

M. Nordin, I. Persson, and D. Rooth, Education-occupation mismatch: Is there an income penalty?, Economics of Education Review, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1047-1059, 2010.

. Oecd, Unemployment rates by education level

T. Ogisu and J. H. Williams, The backstory of education in Cambodia, The political economy of schooling in Cambodia, pp.15-34, 2016.

, Education at a glance, 2014.

L. Ortiz and A. Kucel, Do fields of study matter for over-education? The cases of Spain and Germany, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol.49, issue.4-5, pp.305-327, 2008.

J. Paul, The employability of bachelor's graduates from the universities of Phnom Penh, 2011.

J. M. Peiró, S. Agut, and R. Grau, The relationship between overeducation and job satisfaction among young Spanish workers: The role of salary, contract of employment, and work experience, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol.40, issue.3, pp.666-689, 2010.

C. Peou, On Cambodian higher education and skills mismatch: Young people choosing university majors in a context of risk and uncertainty, Journal of Education and Work, vol.30, issue.1, pp.26-38, 2017.

P. Pholphirul, Educational mismatches and labor market outcomes: Evidence from both vertical and horizontal mismatches in Thailand, Education+ Training, vol.59, issue.5, pp.534-546, 2017.

C. A. Pissarides, Loss of skill during unemployment and the persistence of employment shocks, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, pp.1371-1391, 1992.

C. A. Pissarides, Search unemployment with on-the-job search, The Review of Economic Studies, vol.61, issue.3, pp.457-475, 1994.

C. A. Pissarides, Equilibrium unemployment theory, chapter 1, 2000.

S. Rubb, Overeducation in the labor market: A comment and re-analysis of a meta-analysis, Economics of Education Review, vol.22, issue.6, pp.621-629, 2003.

R. W. Rumberger, The rising incidence of overeducation in the US labor market, Economics of Education Review, vol.1, issue.3, pp.293-314, 1981.

G. Sala, Approaches to skills mismatch in the labour market: A literature review. Papers: revista de sociologia, vol.96, pp.1025-1045, 2011.

A. E. Salama, Addressing the Challenges of the Education/Skills and Jobs Mismatch, 2012.

V. Sam, Free flow of skilled labor in ASEAN: A risk for Cambodian graduates?, 2014.

N. Sánchez-sánchez and S. Mcguinness, Decomposing the impacts of overeducation and overskilling on earnings and job satisfaction: An analysis using REFLEX data, Education Economics, vol.23, issue.4, pp.419-432, 2015.

M. Sattinger, Assignment models of the distribution of earnings, Journal of economic literature, vol.31, issue.2, pp.831-880, 1993.

M. Sattinger, Qualitative mismatches. Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics, vol.8, pp.1-168, 2012.
DOI : 10.1561/0700000052

URL : https://www.nowpublishers.com/article/DownloadSummary/MIC-052

J. A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, socialism and democracy, 1942.

N. Sicherman, Overeducation in the labor market, Journal of labor Economics, pp.101-122, 1991.

N. Sicherman and O. Galor, A theory of career mobility, Journal of political economy, pp.169-192, 1990.

P. Skott and P. Auerbach, Wage inequality and skill asymmetries. Interactions in analytical political economy: theory, policy and applications, 2005.

P. J. Sloane, Much ado about nothing? What does the overeducation literature really tell us? Overeducation in Europe, pp.11-45, 2003.

P. J. Sloane, Overeducation, skill mismatches, and labor market outcomes for college graduates, 2014.
DOI : 10.15185/izawol.88

URL : https://wol.iza.org/uploads/articles/88/pdfs/overeducation-skill-mismatches-and-labor-market-outcomes-for-college-graduates.pdf

P. J. Sloane, H. Battu, and P. T. Seaman, Overeducation, undereducation and the British labour market, Applied Economics, issue.11, pp.1437-1453, 1999.

F. Slonimczyk, Skill mismatch and wage inequality in the US, 2009.

M. Somers, S. Cabus, W. Groot, . &-maassen-van-den, and H. Brink, Horizontal Mismatch between Employment and the Field of Education: Evidence from a Systematic Literature Review, Journal of Economic Surveys, 2018.

T. Sparreboom and A. Staneva, Is education the solution to decent work for youth in developing economies, p.23, 2014.

M. Spence, Job market signaling, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.88, pp.355-374, 1973.
DOI : 10.2307/1882010

D. O. Staiger and J. H. Stock, Instrumental variables regression with weak instruments, National Bureau of Economic Research, 1994.
DOI : 10.3386/t0151

URL : https://doi.org/10.3386/t0151

J. H. Stock, J. H. Wright, and M. Yogo, A survey of weak instruments and weak identification in generalized method of moments, Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, vol.20, issue.4, pp.518-529, 2002.

P. Tandon and T. Fukao, Educating the next generation: Improving teacher quality in Cambodia, 2015.

A. Tansel and H. M. Tai, Hazard analysis of unemployment duration by gender in a developing country: The case of Turkey, Labour, vol.24, issue.4, pp.501-530, 2010.

H. Tao and C. Hung, Vertical and horizontal educational mismatches of female graduates in Taiwan, Asian Economic Journal, vol.28, issue.2, pp.181-199, 2014.

A. Tarvid, Effects of the field of higher education on the prevalence of over-education in European countries. Education: Evaluation, Reform and Policy, pp.167-184, 2012.

C. N. Teulings and P. A. Gautier, The right man for the job, The Review of Economic Studies, vol.71, issue.2, pp.553-580, 2004.

, Bridging the skills gaps in developing countries, The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) and Deutsche Investitions Entwicklungsgesellschaft (DEG), 2016.

L. C. Thurow, Generating inequality, 1976.

F. Torche, Is a college degree still the great equalizer? Intergenerational mobility across levels of schooling in the United States, American Journal of Sociology, vol.117, issue.3, pp.763-807, 2011.

Y. Tsai, Returns to overeducation: A longitudinal analysis of the US labor market, Economics of Education Review, vol.29, issue.4, pp.606-617, 2010.

M. C. Tsang, The impact of underutilization of education on productivity: A case study of the US bell companies, Economics of Education Review, vol.6, issue.3, pp.239-254, 1987.

M. C. Tsang and H. M. Levin, The economics of overeducation, Economics of Education Review, vol.4, issue.2, pp.93-104, 1985.

Z. Tzannatos, I. Diwan, and J. A. Ahad, Rates of return to education in twenty two Arab countries: An update and comparison between MENA and the rest of the World, Cairo: ERF. Working Paper, 1007.

L. Un, Cambodian Higher Education Vision 2030, 2015.

R. R. Verdugo and N. T. Verdugo, The impact of surplus schooling on earnings: Some additional findings, Journal of Human Resources, pp.629-643, 1989.

D. Verhaest and E. Omey, The impact of overeducation and its measurement, Social Indicators Research, vol.77, issue.3, pp.419-448, 2006.

D. Verhaest and T. Schatteman, Overeducation in the early career: An analysis using sequence techniques, 2010.

D. Verhaest and R. Van-der-velden, Cross-country differences in graduate overeducation, European Sociological Review, vol.29, issue.3, pp.642-653, 2012.

E. Verhofstadt and E. Omey, The impact of education on job satisfaction in the first job, 2003.

L. Vessman and E. Hanushek, The role of education quality in economic growth (part I), Educational Studies, issue.2, pp.86-116, 2007.

S. Wald, The impact of overqualification on job search, International Journal of Manpower, vol.26, issue.2, pp.140-156, 2005.

S. Wei and X. Zhang, Sex ratios, entrepreneurship, and economic growth in the people's republic of China, 2011.

J. C. Witte and A. L. Kalleberg, Matching training and jobs: The fit between vocational education and employment in the German labour market, European Sociological Review, vol.11, issue.3, pp.293-317, 1995.

M. H. Wolbers, Job mismatches and their labour-market effects among schoolleavers in Europe, European Sociological Review, vol.19, issue.3, pp.249-266, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/esr/19.3.249

URL : http://edoc.vifapol.de/opus/volltexte/2014/5141/pdf/wp_47.pdf

E. Wolff, Productivity convergence and education: Evidence from OECD countries, 2000.

J. M. Wooldridge, Introductory econometrics: A modern approach. 5, 2012.

W. Bank, Matching aspirations: Skills for implementing Cambodia's growth strategy, 2012.

, World Bank website. (n.d.). Population, total

, The Human Capital Report, World Economic Forum, 2015.

Z. Zakariya and H. Battu, The effects of overeducation on multiple job satisfaction towards enhancing individuals' well-being in Malaysia, Business and Management Quarterly Review, vol.4, pp.38-51, 2013.