Impacts of educational mismatches in developing countries with a focus on Cambodia

Abstract : The enrollment rate in higher education in Cambodia has risen rapidly in the last two decades. Nevertheless, concerns on the graduates' employability exist: University graduates seem to be more and more struggled to find jobs corresponding to their level and field of education, the so-called vertical and horizontal mismatches.This thesis aims at examining the impacts of educational mismatches among graduates in developing countries with a special attention to the Cambodia's case.Chapter 1 examines the relation between education-job mismatches and unemployment duration among graduates in Cambodia. Theoretically, by assuming that job seekers can only access to limited information about the available job opportunities, they face two alternative choices between accepting the first job offer that can be mismatched to their qualification and staying unemployed to wait for a better suitable job. In contrast, if workers are heterogeneous and the job opportunities are limited, it is possible that some workers may fail to find a matched position and stay unemployed for a longer duration.This chapter contributes to the literature in three points. First, we extend the research into the developing country. Second, we take into account the endogeneity of educational mismatches and consider them in their both forms and all dimensions: Vertical or horizontal, single or double mismatch. Third, we propose an analysis from two angles: A theoretical model and an empirical model applied on a survey data in 2011 from nineteen higher education institutions (HEI) in Cambodia. The results underline that unemployment duration increases with the risks of mismatches.Chapter 2 examines whether education-job mismatches lower individual wages. There exists a theoretical consensus on the negative impact of mismatches on wages. Indeed, working in a mismatched job would not allow workers to exploit their potential skills, and consequently they would be less productive and earn less than if they were employed in a matched occupation. Yet, some limits remain in empirical studies.Hence, this chapter contributes to the literature in three points. First, it analyzes another case of developing country, while the existing studies focus on relatively more advanced countries. Second, it analyzes the combination effects of vertical and horizontal mismatches. Third, we take into account the selection bias problem by proposing an ordered Heckman model applied on a survey data from eight HEI in Cambodia in 2014. The econometric results allow us concluding that wages decrease with the level of mismatches.Chapter 3 examines the impacts of overeducation on economics growth in thirty-eight developing countries. Two theoretical approaches confront each another. First, a worker's productivity depends on both job attributes and individual characteristics. Thus, overeducated workers are more productive than their counterparts in the same job, which is good for the economic growth. In contrast, overeducated workers may be dissatisfied with their jobs, which induces to counterproductive behaviors, such as high rates of absenteeism and turnover, that is bad for the growth outcome.Hence, this chapter contributes to the literature in two points. First, this chapter contributes in terms of data, allowing to analyze the impacts of overeducation on economic growth in developing countries. Second, this chapter deals with unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity of overeducation by employing two-stage least squares regression with country fixed-effects. The results show that overeducation has a negative impact on economic growth
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Vichet Sam. Impacts of educational mismatches in developing countries with a focus on Cambodia. Economies and finances. Université Grenoble Alpes, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018GREAA012⟩. ⟨tel-02136222⟩

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