Le bidonville de « La place » : L'intégration en marge des institutions républicaines dans la France contemporaine

Abstract : The term slum has reappeared in recent years in France in political and media discourse. Although originally used to designate the places of residence of populations identified as Roma, this word is now used to refer both to a phenomenon linked to very high poverty and to processes of relegation and exclusion. However, many studies in sociology and anthropology have shown the slum's integrative capacity, particularly when it facilitates the connection of migrants with their social environment. The object is therefore complex and a permanent internal tension structures the social function it plays: it is both a trap and an airlock. The changes in the social, economic and political context of recent decades therefore require a reinterpretation of the knowledge acquired during the period 1960-1970, at a time when France had counted up to 70.000 inhabitants in the slums. While the reasons for the presence and maintenance of slums in the territory have changed, the forms of integration associated with them have also changed. Indeed, the "French integration" model, which is very homogeneous and mechanical, was until recently based on employment and normative assimilation; however, new forms of poverty and the weakening of regulatory institutions such as the family, school or the State have led to increasing difficulties in welcoming new arrivals. It was then increasingly the welfare state that took charge of these mechanisms, but there are many failures and they partly explain the relegation and marginalization of some individuals present on French territory. The objective of this work is therefore to understand whether slums still play an integrating role, and if so, what the different modalities are. To answer this question, the thesis is based on a two-year ethnography conducted in northeastern France with a dozen families living in a slum. Based on an analysis of everyday issues, we will describe how their access to French society is managed and how their living conditions can act as obstacles or facilitators in this process. It will also be a question of understanding how the inhabitants stabilize and give coherence to their trajectories, particularly in the face of a changing urban world that is changing and weakening the ways in which the sense of belonging of citizens is constructed.
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Jean-Baptiste Daubeuf. Le bidonville de « La place » : L'intégration en marge des institutions républicaines dans la France contemporaine. Sociologie. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02007204⟩

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