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Bâtir en Lorraine méridionale (XIe-XIIe siècles) : chantier et mise en œuvre des matériaux

Abstract : Thanks to steps forward on art history regarding the Romanesque architecture in the Lorraine region, this thesis revisits a number of sites in terms of archaeological issues related to the art of building. Fourteen monographs of churches, abbeys or castles, plus a hundred or so sites explored in the ancient diocese of Toul, make it possible to understand the use of building materials, primarily stone and wood. This can be done along nine themes related to construction: how to define location, proportionate, extract, cut, assemble, build, vault, scaffold, cover. This work highlights the know-how of architects, quarrymen, stonecutters, masons or carpenters involved in projects that have been neglected as they are often too modest to attract the attention of researchers.In fact, this topic has not been so far the subject of substantial studies for the geographical area and the chronological period involved. We have highlighted buildings for which plan and volume vary from one place to the other, although they all fit well with the known Romanesque canons. Specificities are prevalent in the Toul area, the Saintois or the Vallage. They are distinguished first by the density of remains in comparison with the rest of the Lorraine. This testifies to the vitality of these three entities during the 12th century in particular. It seems also related to the lithic resources available in these sectors.Examination of the materials and locations of available resources in the area highlights an economy based on short distribution channels, whereas materials rarely come from more than five kilometers away from the construction site, with the possible exception of pine wood and mortar. Physico-chemical analyzes have completed the research. They have often made it possible to reconsider the datings proposed by art historians, aging the buildings by several tens of years.On the sites themselves, we often provide the first observations in the archeology of buildings carried out so far, especially for rural buildings of low volume or for parts of buildings which are difficult to access, either in ruin or still in use. In light of these explorations, a new field of research is emerging and has to extended: the use of wood in the masonry and the carpentry. More traces remain than thought of at the beginning of the investigation. In a more general way, we notice an evolution in the technicality of the building sites, and their rationalization, which encompasses first the religious buildings at the end of the 11th century, before extending to the castle construction during the 12th century, and later to the small country churches. From a similar perspective, we demonstrate that local know-how is more often used than grand architectural concepts developed on more prestigious buildings and in regions of more political importance.We have also taken special care to put the Man and his gesture back in the center of the construction process. Most of the time, studies in this area are concerned with motivations and consequences of an action, be it political, artistic or editorial. We have focused more on technicality. How to go from motivation (the will to build) to realization (reception of the finished work) ? More than the point of arrival, it is the process that has been at the center of our concerns. Thus, we can imagine the position of the stonecutter in front of his stone, the position of his hand, the movement he infuses to the tool. How to organize the facings and how to differentiate the first stone laid from the last? How to respond to architectural constraints ? How to develop the scaffolding ? Here again, certain local peculiarities have appeared, probably showing a movement of workers to the various sites according to the opening of the construction works. Finally, our work brings new heuristic tools to the attention of researchers making the reading of the wall facings less tedious and more rational
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Submitted on : Friday, January 25, 2019 - 12:14:32 PM
Last modification on : Sunday, December 22, 2019 - 9:48:32 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01994157, version 1

Citation

Cédric Moulis. Bâtir en Lorraine méridionale (XIe-XIIe siècles) : chantier et mise en œuvre des matériaux. Histoire. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0184⟩. ⟨tel-01994157⟩

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