Transitions énergétiques et politiques à l’orée du XXIe siècle : L’émergence en France d’un modèle territorial de transition énergétique

Abstract : Our work focuses on energy transition policies launched by French local authorities through a historical perspective. We analyze renewable energy and energy efficiency local policies as well as grid modernization, especially since their development in the mid-2000s. They are embedded in a process where historical principles guiding public policies in the energy sector are being challenged, especially as regards electricity. This offers opportunities to actors contesting these organizational principles, who promote alternatives they crafted for a few decades. Thanks to policy entrepreneurs mobilizing resources acquired over the course of their career, an alternative territorialized energy model is emerging. Gradually, it gains ground through the development of local production systems, mostly controlled by regional councils and large urban centers. These processes bring about a number of changes, most of them being incremental. However, we identify accelerating periods that can lead to changes of energy systems on a wider scale. They introduce differentiation from the French energy system, organized and controlled at a national scale. These alternatives are standardized, and it makes them more powerful to confront strong path dependency in this area. Since energy policy has been central in the crafting of the French modern state, these transitions could have consequences on public policies in general and on the state itself.
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Marie Dégremont. Transitions énergétiques et politiques à l’orée du XXIe siècle : L’émergence en France d’un modèle territorial de transition énergétique. Science politique. Institut d'études politiques de paris - Sciences Po, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-01874129⟩

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