Une analyse économique de la qualité et de l'efficience des universités et des systèmes universitaires : une comparaison au niveau international

Abstract : This thesis aims to economically analyze the quality and efficiency of universities and university systems at an international level of comparison, by using input/output indicators and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method. The thesis is composed of four chapters. The first chapter entitled "university rankings: a critical perspective" presents and evaluates the relevance of inputs/outputs indicators used by most university rankings. It is the opportunity to present a number of criticisms found in the literature and focus on a common methodological problem in the rankings. It is the use of inputs as measures of university quality. This practice confuses means and results and ignores the basic concepts of accounting models in terms of production functions and efficiency. The second chapter entitled "characteristics and rankings of universities : around some factors that can explain the differences in performance between universities", compares the results of two rankings: QS-Times and Shanghai and offers a list of factors that may explain why there are such differences in quality, according to these rankings between universities. [...] The third chapter entitled "performance and efficiency of universities and their determinants: an evaluation using world university rankings and DEA methodology" evaluates on the basis of a DEA methodology the efficiency of 214 universities from 13 different countries, in order to find if the top ranked universities among traditional rankings are also universities that best utilize their financial and human resources. [...] The fourth chapter titled "efficiency of university systems in 35 countries and its determinants: an assessment by DEA methodology and the calculation of Malmquist indices (2006-2012)" assesses the efficiency and performance of university systems of 35 countries. It offers new scores for overall efficiency that complement the first two studies on this topic in the literature by Agasisti (2011) and St.Aubyn et al (2009). Compared to the article of Agasisti (2011), we identify five new developments in our study : the sample is higher (35 countries instead of 18), the observation period is updated, the evolution of efficiency between two periods is calculated, the number of inputs and outputs incorporated into each model is higher and a specific model for evaluating the efficiency of research is proposed. Our study confirms the thesis that the university systems of Switzerland and the United Kingdom are the most efficient. It also shows based on the calculations of Malmquist indices between 2006 and 2012 that teaching efficiency of 35 reviewed university systems has a tendency of declining while the research efficiency and that of attractivity-reputation is rather increasing. This allows a better assessment of the impact of reforms inspired by the Shanghai ranking on university systems. These reforms led the academic staff of universities to abandon their focus on teaching in favor of research activities.
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Fouad Ferhat. Une analyse économique de la qualité et de l'efficience des universités et des systèmes universitaires : une comparaison au niveau international. Economies et finances. Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PA01E040⟩. ⟨tel-01815038⟩

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