“Firenze Capitale d’Italia”, le « Plan Poggi », 1864-1871 : évolution des conceptions diplomatiques, politiques, urbanistiques, militaires et culturelles à travers le transfert de la capitale du Royaume d'Italie à Florence

Abstract : This study concerns the mutual influences of the "Plan Poggi" (project of Florence's enlargement) and diplomatic, political, military and economic relations between Italy and the European Powers, particularly France and Holy See, since the 1864 " September Convention " until the breach of " Porta Pia " in 1870, and the transfer of the capital city in Rome in 1871. An analysis of the population's state of mind in front of economic and social upheavals pulled by the arrival of the government, through political actors, inhabitants, architecture, art, literature and Press testimonies will come then. Finally, the influence of these urban, social modifications on the mentalities, on the perception of the cultural and historic heritage will be analyzed. In conclusion, will come an analysis of the consequences of the loss of the status of capital city on the mentalities and on the urban planning projects, with in particular the "Florentine Question ", e.g the subsidization by the State of a part of the works bound to the governmental institutions, still not finished when the capital city leaves Florence, which are going to burden the finances of the municipality, and lead it to bankruptcy in the 1880s. An accentuation of the research on the military questions, which are of a big importance for the period, seems important; actually, the transfer of the capital city from Turin to Florence leads to totally rethink the strategic system of the Italian military General commandment, as well as the defensive system of the city promoted to the rank of capital (as well as to drastically reduce Turin's own, which however remain an important base for attacks against the Austrian enemy): the 1869 military exercise are the concrete example. The accentuation of the claiming for Venetia (which will drive to the war in 1866) provokes a strategic shift: the Lower Po Valley grows importance compared to the Mincio. The army is one of the keys of the realization of the urbanisation projects of Florentine Risanamento, posing its marks in the landscape, by the construction of barracks (sometimes at the expense of public health equipment), and the planning of important zones of military exercises, e.g the "Campo di Marte" whose localization will be object of numerous debates and discussions. Florence's reorganization in model town of the new kingdom, the new unitarian Italy and the new liberal bourgeoisie also owes (as in Paris) to be a city allowing effective and easy military operations.It will also be a question of studying to what extent the military operations and the strategy conditioned the construction of the railroad infrastructures, other important point of the town planning of Florence, with the debates on the construction and the location of a new station as a replacement of the former, and closed down, Stazione Leopolda: the location of circulation ways determines the town planning, but has to face strategic constraints, as Florence quickly becoming (even if the city had already played a similar role, although in a much lesser measure in 1859 against Austria, with the volunteers' massive arrival coming to enlist in the army) a railway and road junction allowing to make the main part of the Italian army go back to the north, used since the beginning of 1860s on the south to repress the Brigantismo.
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Nicolas Guillaume. “Firenze Capitale d’Italia”, le « Plan Poggi », 1864-1871 : évolution des conceptions diplomatiques, politiques, urbanistiques, militaires et culturelles à travers le transfert de la capitale du Royaume d'Italie à Florence. Histoire. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0282⟩. ⟨tel-01630214⟩

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