Dynamiques territoriales dans la gestion des ressources forestières des espaces protégés du Mexique. Le cas du Nevado de Toluca

Abstract : This research concerns the Nevado de Toluca (Mexico), a protected area where the goal of forest conservation, while being hardly reached, calls into questions the livelihoods of rural populations. Territorial dynamics which ensue from these tensions are examined. The question concerns essentially the confrontation between the forest preservation such as it is carried by the public authorities on one hand, and on the other hand, the vital needs for the agricultural populations affected by the followed policies. The main hypothesis is that policies of forest preservation do not reach the expected results because there is no global vision exceeding the sectorial approaches of institutions in presence, and especially because the opinion of the farmers is not enough taken into account, due to lack of a thorough knowledge of the rural societies. To restore this knowledge, the research method consisted mainly, besides the mobilized documentation, of numerous interviews with the inhabitants of several localities of Nevado, with the various institutional actors and with the forest experts who participate in the preservation of this protected space. Using the TXM software, these interviews were analysed employing a quali-quantitative analysis on the “textometric” type. Among the main obtained results, we shall hold in particular the fact that the local populations have very contrasted social representations of their environment while having a full consciousness of the ecological challenges. They feel the limitations of use, in particular some wood of fire, as a social injustice. However, socio-spatial configurations and original territorial dynamics exist, and depend on the geographical context, in particular the phenomena of spatial and social proximity. The social cohesion of the groups is important and will be all the stronger as his members share the same cultural values, including religious ones. We also notice that the distance of the city produces paradoxically endogenous dynamics of organization which may also be a basis for an integrated protection policy in spite of the constraints of everyday life. All in all, this thesis suggests a reflection around arbitration between the forest preservation and the socioeconomic impacts on the rural poorest population groups. She invites to think of the justice environmental as of the fruit of the social innovation.
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Andrea Salinas Rojas. Dynamiques territoriales dans la gestion des ressources forestières des espaces protégés du Mexique. Le cas du Nevado de Toluca. Géographie. Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3, 2016. Français. ⟨tel-01620265⟩

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