Economie politique des infrastructures ferroviaires

Abstract : There is still much progress to make concerning the French and the European railway networks, both from governance and competitiveness standpoints. This is the conclusion this work lead to. The results from the Enerdata-LET research consortium (2014) illustrate that, considering factor 4 for horizon 2050, the modal shift of demand in transport towards railway could be massive. Regarding this, the situation of Paris-Lyon high-speed line, already up to its saturation level, addresses the issue of the capacity a system possesses to bear new traffics. Two schools oppose there. On one side, the supporters of the SNIT suggest a quasi-doubling of the high-speed railway network, in order to cope with futures needs, whereas on the other side, the “Mobilité 21” commission gives priority to the search of increasing returns from the existing infrastructure. Without claiming to solve the issue, this work attempts to bring up comprehension elements on the interaction between demand and offer in the railway sector.Studying the accordance between an increase in railway demand and offer leads us to question performance. It means being able to define capacity of the railway infrastructure, first. But it also means questioning its limits, which addresses the phenomenon of saturation, also called congestion. Eventually, this all inevitably leads to put into perspective the relativeness of these limits and to question the ways to overcome them. The objective of this research is to apply this issue to the railway system, accounting its specificities. We consider its constitution as a network industry and as a natural monopoly, when considering the infrastructure (infrastructure manager). Without pretending to conclude the debate on governance, we consider that this particularity might influence actors and, thus, performance. We also consider the legal framework at the European scale. One can’t question performance without framing the railway sector within its legal context. Then, the main purpose of the analysis stands in the study of saturation of the Paris-Lyon high-speed line. We consider the line as representative of the expected performance level of the whole French railway network. It challenges both technical and economic capacities that are in the core of our rationale on performance, its requirements and the opportunities of the French network.
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Florent Laroche. Economie politique des infrastructures ferroviaires. Economies et finances. Université Lumière - Lyon II, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01291541⟩

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