Les enseignants de fin de cycle élémentaire face à la grande difficulté scolaire Enjeux psychiques et influences culturelles

Abstract : Abstract This research´s aim is to understand the psychic elements at stake in the confrontation between a 5th grade teacher, with a specific role and works at the transitional period with middle school, and their pupils considered in great difficulty according to the institutional standards. This questioning takes its roots in the researcher's various work experiences in France and overseas. The chosen approach is clinical, with a psychoanalytical orientation to allow the conscious and unconscious psychic movements mobilized in the ‘professional personality’ of every teacher practicing in different contexts. First the meaning of the notion of great school difficulty is analyzed in the official communication of the French Department of Education, using back to school texts. Then seven non-directive research clinical consultations were led with 5rd grade teachers, in France, in French Polynesia and in the Antilles. The concepts of knowledge, psychic temporality, anxiety, defense and displacement but also the notions of transmission, cultural complicity and potential space are addressed, from the analysis of each interview and also a transversal reflection putting in them perspective. The results of the research indicate the presence of active psychic dynamics in this teaching situation, with experiences of educational and didactic powerlessness, forms of anxiety especially liked to separation, and specific modes of defense, in the context of the transition from primary to middle school - a situation which reinforces the possibilities of failure. The research also highlights the importance of the confrontation of the individual experience of the teachers with interiorized collective values. It identifies the cultural influences mobilized by the psychic and professional defenses of the practitioners which participate in working-off mechanisms in front of proven psychical conflicts. A transforming and elaborating transmission becomes possible through cultural complicity. The use of cultural objects and values creates a potential space in which the links between pupil and teacher are restored, and that the child and the adult can ‘fill creatively’ (Winnicott) with the resources of their environment. Consequently this research, which is focused on the subjectivity of the professionals, opens on the environmental contexts, allowing confrontations with other disciplines such as anthropology and increasing the understanding of the psychic phenomena at stake in this situation.
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Cathy Luce. Les enseignants de fin de cycle élémentaire face à la grande difficulté scolaire Enjeux psychiques et influences culturelles. Education. Université Paris Descartes, 2014. Français. ⟨tel-01233866⟩



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