Contribution à une sociohistoire de l’espace professionnel au regard des attributs de la « qualité » des productions bovines. D’un droit du sang à un droit du sol ?

Abstract : In 2000, the first Designation of Origin for beef production has emerged (AOC Camargue Bull). This AOC reveals a change in the attributes of the hierarchy of the "quality" of production in favor of "terroir". In a historical perspective, the thesis questions this evolution and attempts to capture what it carries more global changes in the livestock sector. In other words, the thesis deals with the construction, over time, the quality attributes and aims to (re) locate the contemporary development of "terroir" productions in the history of breeding. I question the manner of emergence, development and renewal of quality attributes and the effects of these constructions on the structure and regulation of the professional space, defined as a social space that emerging reports that actors engaged in the production and marketing of livestock products maintain them. These research highlights three phases in the history of the construction of qualifications; these phases also structure the thesis plan. The first phase (1850-1970) led me to analyze, in a context of development of regional meat markets and political upheaval, the role of notable owners in the emergence studbooks responsible for registering animals defined such as bovine elite and in the dissemination of this model, which results in the formation of a professional space dominated by racial logics. I also analyzed in this first part the disjunction between the commercial space and the professional space that the laws of 1965 the reorganization of the market and that of 1966 on the modernization of livestock have committed. The second phase (1970-2000) corresponds to the development of red labels which appear as a response by the professional organizations to transformations that crystallize these two laws. I point to the economic and professional issues raised by labels but also the role of local officials in the emergence of red labels. I then analyzes the effects that these labels have had on the structuring of a more differentiated commercial space. I studied and the plurality of quality attributes in terms of dispositional sociology where quality attributes appear as competitive resources that are the product (and support) decision-professional positions depending on the their place in the professional space. The last phase is the contemporary dynamics of development of territories of productions. To understand this movement of quality attributes, I question the proper professional and economic dynamic, but I also opens the analysis on the role of national and European administrations or that of the investment of local actors (over in addition to outside the profession). Finally, the thesis realizes the difficult appropriation of "terroir" by practitioners of livestock struggling with their own technical realities, economic, socio-cultural and professional. The thesis finally shows how the struggle for the imposition of production modes of classification is at the heart of the transformation of the market and the profession.
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Stéphane Guyard. Contribution à une sociohistoire de l’espace professionnel au regard des attributs de la « qualité » des productions bovines. D’un droit du sang à un droit du sol ?. Sociologie. Université de Nantes, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NANT3021⟩. ⟨tel-01165466⟩

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