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Theses

Le raisonnement analogique en lexicographie, son informatisation et son application au Réseau Lexical du Français

Abstract : By using theorical and practical advances in computer sciences and linguistics, contemporary lexicography have freed itself from the linear organisation of print publications. It had sought to define new descriptive models and provide henceforth the community with formal and consistent ressources. Such ressources offer many opportunities for natural language processing tasks. This PhD thesis focuses on lexical systems model, which is proposed by Explanatory Combinatorial Lexicography. Specifically, it takes an interest in the the French Lexical Network, presently under development. As lexical system, this ressource is a monolingual graph of lexical units connected by a rich set of lexical relations mainly based on syntactico-semantic Meaning-Text lexical functions. The PhD thesis lays the groundwork for an exploration of this ressource by analogical reasonning. It begins with a selective overview of formalisation and computerisation of analogy in natural language processing. It thus defines the principle of exploration of lexical graph implemented as a grouping of unifiable structures. The nodes in the graph are similar to objects, which have some attributes available in their lexicographic descriptions and edges represent relations. A reflection is conducted on the nature of the various constituents of the graph and the relations between them. The evolution of the resource over thirty months is taken into account during the carrying out of this study. It is accompanied by a topological analysis, which highlights properties close to those of small word networks. Then two sets of exploratory experiments are conducted. The first one confirms the belief that the resource formalisation makes it possible to detect automatically analogies consistent with lexicographers'intuition. It highlights the possibility of several kind of analogical explorations, according to entry points and compared pieces of information. It also reveals that this exploration enable us to check the consistency of the resource and to allow lexical rules to emerge. The second set of experiments is focused around the concept of lexical derivation configurations. It shows how grouping of analogous subgraphs reveals recurrent lexical connections through the resource. The progress status of the resource doesn't enable us to obtain successfully completed rules and models. The results obtained are nontheless encouraging. Analogy can already be considered as a guide to ensure the quality of lexical resources. It also allows for the acquisition of knowledge about its organisation. Such knowledge can be used to identify linguitic phenomena and to design instruments to support lexicographic activity.
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Sandrine Ollinger. Le raisonnement analogique en lexicographie, son informatisation et son application au Réseau Lexical du Français. Linguistique. Université de Lorraine, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014LORR0330⟩. ⟨tel-01751806v2⟩

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