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Le rôle de l’Université Ouverte al-Quds (UOQ) dans la formation de la nouvelle élite palestinienne

Abstract : Starting from 1948 the Palestinian society is destabilized by the war which saw the loss of historic Palestine. The vast majority of Palestinians are scattered in the countries of the region and beyond the Mediterranean. The old elite originating from religious, family or land ownership backgrounds lost also all its possessions and, consequently, all its influential positions. Helpless and disoriented, this elite will never return to the forefront of the Palestinian national scene. It is the men who lead the struggle for the recovery of Palestine of 1948, and then, from 1967 onwards, against the occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (part of historic Palestine), first in an armed struggle then through diplomacy and political negotiations, who become the new figures of the Palestinian political scene under the umbrella of the Palestine Liberation Organization, the PLO. They come from outside the well-known religious families and the Palestinian bourgeoisie, but rather from the middle class of towns or from rural areas who will recruit in the refugee camps the future fighters. These are the new leaders. It is a process that began in the mid-1960s and was progressively consolidated through the creation of Palestinian parties and movements operating in various host countries in the region. This new elite adapts itself to the changes and vagaries of international diplomacy and to an imbalance of power against Israel throughout the years of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In order to understand the process of the forming of Palestinian elites it was necessary to adopt the approach of historical events and facts related to the Palestinian people since 1948 until the post-Oslo (1993). The last twenty years saw a Palestinian National Authority characterized by sovereignty limited to the main cities of the West Bank and Gaza strip, contrary to what had been stipulated in the Oslo Agreements of 1993 : these were to lead to a final settlement concerning the status of the Territories occupied in 1967. The focus of our research is therefore the society in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Starting from 1993, the leaders returning from exile and who formed the ruling members of the National Authority supported the initiatives of Palestinians, in particular, the prominent figures of the cities, in the creation and development of academic establishments and universities as a way not only to meet with the need of education of the young in a resiliency act to face occupation, but also to respond to the demands of building the future State institutions inside the 1967 lines. New skills, new competences were required in this new phase of the post-Oslo evolution where, along the political struggle, higher education became vital to the existence of the Palestinian society who ambitions to have a full-fledged position among the modern states of the world. Other new figures will arise from these universities to form a new, different elite in a context of democracy rules where power will not be exclusively in the hands of a few rulers. The PLO in 1990, had created a University for all, the al-Quds Open University (QOU), based on the mode of open and distance learning. This was a choice made urgent by the restrictions and the obstacles imposed by the occupying forces. QOU became particularly attractive as evidenced by the large numbers of its registered students and as the situation grew more tense. Later on and despite its limited offer of study disciplines it drew students needing to secure job, adults wanting to pursue unfinished studies, women who found it easy to access the University study centers.
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Imad Hodali. Le rôle de l’Université Ouverte al-Quds (UOQ) dans la formation de la nouvelle élite palestinienne. Science politique. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST0093⟩. ⟨tel-01089815⟩

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