La pratique des échanges commerciaux dans la société précoloniale du Gabon : XVIe-[XIXe] siècles

Abstract : This thesis deals with the practice of the exchanges and some trade in the pré-colonial society of the Gabon. The stake is to study this practice by favoring an angle of general approach at first, and by operating a progressive analytical approach, to seize the actors, the modes of production but also the products being the object of these exchanges. The object " the practice of the trades in the pré-colonial society of the Gabon: XVIe-XIXe century " is situated between the international relations, between the analysis of the contacts with the peoples of " the outside ", process of Europeanization and can thus be the object of different approaches according to the variables which we intend to favor. We chose to study it according to an approach not only historic but anthropological and sociological which leads us to favor certain key concepts: history of the peoples, the study of their middle and lifestyle, configurations of relations between actors structuring a new social space of interactions. From a methodological point of view, this study leans on a qualitative approach and favors the use of the conversations: the corpus of composes of about fifty conversations, completed by the broadcasting, the specialized and grey literature on the subject. It consists of two parts, cut in six (6) total chapters.In a first part, the thesis concentrates on the history of the peoples of the pre-colonial Gabon by taking into account factor, circuits and outcomes of the migrations, in this particular case the setting-up of these ethnic groups in their current housing environment. It extends then over the study of the political and cultural social organization of the peoples through the analysis of the parental, marital, legal and religious structures. Finally, this part specifies the context and the game of the various actors at the origin of the development of these exchanges: the agricultural and craft production favored on one hand by the social division of the work and the specialization of groups and on the other hand by the ecological weaknesses uneven distribution of resources, aridity of grounds, devastating animals.Secondly, the thesis makes concern the analysis the progress of the activities of exchange on one hand and trade on the other hand. It accentuates the various circuits borrowed by the actors and the products as well as the zones of outcome. At first, It makes a description of the exchanges in local environment stage the members of the same circles or the close circles from each other. This interdependence observed within the groups had for basis the links of familiarity or friendship between these various groups of concerned actors. Then, is evoked the system of exchange outside territories, whatever the concept territory is only used in a pejorative way. This category of exchange creates contacts between the populations with those of the surrounding localities from north to south, from east to west. Finally, the weight of the abolition of the slave trade plays a level macro as obstacle of the economic activities of the European, what lifts from then on capitalist stakes for the latter. The birth of this economy of traitor, but also its progress and its ancestry on the pre-existent traditional economy are the object of our third and last chapter of this second part. Between inheritance and natural adjustments, these economic policies are going to set up of types of currencies, products and habits. Even there, the weight of the cultures and the habits foreign to these peoples, limited the practice of the traditional exchanges, developing the effects of apprenticeship in the jobs supplier of the earnings.
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Laure Cynthia Mboyi Moukanda. La pratique des échanges commerciaux dans la société précoloniale du Gabon : XVIe-[XIXe] siècles. Histoire. Université Michel de Montaigne - Bordeaux III, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013BOR30014⟩. ⟨tel-00984318⟩

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