Abstract : This research derives from political sociology and is concerned with music, an uncommon entity in regard topolitical science. It explores rebetiko, an urban kind of Greek popular music, and postulates that the analysis ofpopular music offers a privileged access to the ambiguous representations of authority, to the participation topolitics and its legitimation. Constructing a dynamic theoretical frame, capable of undertaking constant change,musical and social, as well as capable of integrating form and content, external and internal approaches, resultsin adopting a pluralistic methodology: historical, musical and sociological. The first part attempts to revisit thehistory of rebetiko, to study the conditions of its production and reception during the period extending from theend of the 19th up to the dawn of the 20th century. Through press articles, I intend to highlight the constructionand fluidity of this musical category, its place in the broad entity of popular music, as well as the process of itsauthentication and its adherence to tradition. Furthermore, a corpus of twenty-five songs, still popular to this day,is analysed. Loans and adaptations are detected, traces of the past, as well as "reserved oblivion" (oublis deréserve). Finally, I survey the actual appreciation of rebetiko and interpret various stories told about this kind ofmusic, being collected by means of collective, non-directive interviews, enriched with the listening of musicalexcerpts. All along the way bridges are being built between the musical and the social realms; scaffolding in andout of rebetiko, multiple identity and memory configurations unveil the ambiguity of divisions andtransformations of the Greek society.