Michel Foucault : la "parrêsia", une éthique de la vérité

Abstract : Starting in 1982, Foucault gave a central place to the experience that knots transformation of the self and access to truth. In this perspective, truth becomes an experience in which we should transform our existence to reach what is true. It is the question of spirituality and its relation to philosophy that emerges, redefining philosophy as an experience of transformation of the self as witness to the truth. Our objective will be to show how through the concept of parrêsia Foucault proposes a new way to think about the relationship between truth telling and transformation of the self. This transformation implies a constant questioning, but most of all, it implies a permanent vigilance with regard to the world, others and oneself. It is no longer only a question of inventing oneself in response to subjection, but to have the courage to become another, in another world. This relationship between life and truth implies constantly being at stake, necessarily risking a loss of self for the emergence of another life. Our aim will thus be to trace the ethical variations taken by this courage for truth. Parrêsia is another way of thinking about the knot between subjectivity and truth, a form of subjectification in which the subject does not attach to identity but by which the subject is has to continually reinvent itself. We will examine five forms, or rather, five moments of historical consideration of this concept of parrêsia analyzed by Foucault in his last two courses at the Collège de France: parrêsia in the ancient practices of the self, parrêsia and its democratic origins, the moment of transition from political to ethical parrêsia, socratic parrêsia and finally, cynical parrêsia. These five forms will also allow us to show the relationship established by Foucault between the concept of critique and that of parrêsia. We shall also see how this knotting reveals the questions of the role of the intellectual and the task of philosophy, two underlying questions present throughout his last courses.
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Maria Andrea Rojas. Michel Foucault : la "parrêsia", une éthique de la vérité. Philosophie. Université Paris-Est, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012PEST0029⟩. ⟨tel-00856801⟩

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