Histoire biologique d’une population du sud-est malgache : les Antemoro

Abstract : Between the 11th and 16th century, the Indian Ocean was the scene of many population movements notably for commercial and colonial purposes. Madagascar is located at the crossroads of the Asian and African continents. Several migrations have occurred in this region; the last one during the late 15th century involved the Antemoro population who claimed an Arabian origin in Mecca. Many anthropological and linguistic studies have been carried out on this ethnic group, but the origin of these migrants remains contentious. It is uncertain whether their origins were in Arabia, East Africa, India or Southeast Asia, when these regions were Islamized. In this study we assessed the genetic diversity of an Antemoro population from villages between Manakara and Vohipeno, to determine their biological origin. The aim of our interdisciplinary study was to link cultural and social anthropology with biological anthropology. Y-chromosome polymorphisms were studied by analyzing 17 microsatellites markers and some SNPs in the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome to determine the biological origins of the paternal lineages. In addition, genetic variability of maternal lineages was analyzed by sequencing hypervariables regions I and II, and by defining bi-allelic polymorphisms in the coding region of mitochondrial DNA. We found two Y-chromosome haplogroups in some Antemoro groups that differentiated them from the typical genetic variability found in other Malagasy populations. Although most of the Antemoro showed a genetic diversity similar to that observed in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, few haplotypes associated to paternal lineages linked them to the Middle East. Maternal lineages did not differ from those found in other Malagasy populations. The genetic isolate formed by some Antemoro groups confirmed their cultural isolation. This study provides a new view of the human genetic diversity in Madagascar.
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Mélanie Capredon. Histoire biologique d’une population du sud-est malgache : les Antemoro. Anthropologie sociale et ethnologie. Université de la Réunion, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011LARE0016⟩. ⟨tel-00703684⟩

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