Les territoires politico-économiques face aux technologies de l'information et de la communication : entre métropolisation et différenciation territoriale

Mathieu Vidal 1
1 CIEU - Centre interdisciplinaire d'études urbaines (Toulouse)
UT2J - Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès
Abstract : Since the beginning of the 1990s the progressive rise of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), at the same time as an economic sector and as a vector of new uses, questioned not only the traditional diagrams related to the territories economic activity organization, but also revealed new possible strategies for the economic actors seizing
the opportunity of a new means for territorial development.

Starting here from this double report, we place the triptych "ICTs - Territory - Economic Actors" in the centre of our considerations. First of all, we show how the ICTs succeeded in occupying the place which is
theirs, today, in the economy, while positioning within territories being admittedly used as receptacles but especially as resources for their development. ICTs are also forming part of organization localization diagrams of the economic activity, which are suddenly newly questioned (in particular in term of metropolization). Finally, ICTs are repositioning the various economic actors (especially public ones) in
the centre of new stakes for territories.

The grounds of this work, "archipelago territories", allow us, in particular, to think about the effects of the metropolization of the activity related to the ICTs, on the one hand by carrying out a statistical study done about the metropolises of Bordeaux, Toulouse and Marseilles, and studying, consecutively in France and in Canada, a metropolis and a city - or a "numerical territory" - located itself in its back country. Thus, it is a question of studying which is the place of the ICTs, and the way in which the various economic actors seize them, first within the metropolis of Toulouse, then in the basin of
Castres-Mazamet, this last one constituting the real core of this work. In the same way, with incomparable scales but with different strategies justifying the positioning of the territorial actors, Montreal and
Bromont (Quebec, Canada), made it possible to renew the illustration of the importance of the place of the ICTs, as regards, at the same time, the economic development and the territorial development.

Of course, if metropolises fit in optics of a technopolitan development, "numerical territories" rather aim at dynamization and differentiation, in the current game of territorial competition, but also aim at complementarity with this close metropolis against which it would be in any way impossible to compete.

In spite of the different scales and strategies, these studies show certain recurrences, as the place and the role of the various types of actors considered, the force of the metropolization (in particular as regards territorial marketing) and the importance of time. Lastly, the question of the relevant scale arises, as regards the good scale for the management and governance of the ICTs programs; if recent studies
recorded the importance of the regional level, one can wonder about the place which currently take intercommunalities and also communities of agglomerations as regards local development by the means of the ICTs.
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Mathieu Vidal. Les territoires politico-économiques face aux technologies de l'information et de la communication : entre métropolisation et différenciation territoriale. Géographie. Université Toulouse le Mirail - Toulouse II, 2006. Français. ⟨tel-00115213⟩

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