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Social Inequalities, Identity, and the Structure of Political Cleavages in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, 1952-2019

Abstract : This paper combines electoral surveys to analyze the transformation of the structure of political cleavages in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico and Peru over the last decades. We document that Latin American countries are characterized by personalist leaderships (e.g., Fujimori in Peru, Uribe in Colombia) and important historical cleavages (e.g., anti vs. pro-PLN in Costa Rica) that blur class-based voting patterns and have led in some cases to the emergence of competing pro-poor and ethnic-based competing coalitions (e.g., PRN-PLN in Costa Rica, Fujimori-Humala in Peru) over the last decades. The party systems of Costa Rica, Colombia and Peru have thus generated volatile political socioeconomic cleavages, while in the more institutionalized party systems of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico they have been less volatile.
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https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-03215948
Contributor : Caroline Bauer <>
Submitted on : Monday, May 3, 2021 - 4:11:42 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 5, 2021 - 3:12:41 AM

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  • HAL Id : halshs-03215948, version 1

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Oscar Barrera, Ana Leiva, Clara Martínez-Toledano, Álvaro Zúñiga-Cordero. Social Inequalities, Identity, and the Structure of Political Cleavages in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, 1952-2019. 2021. ⟨halshs-03215948⟩

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