Skip to Main content Skip to Navigation
Journal articles

A massacre of early Neolithic farmers in the high Pyrenees at Els Trocs, Spain

Abstract : Violence seems deeply rooted in human nature and an endemic potential for such is today frequently associated with differing ethnic, religious or socioeconomic backgrounds. Ethnic nepotism is believed to be one of the main causes of inter-group violence in multi-ethnic societies. At the site of Els Trocs in the Spanish pyrenees, rivalling groups of either migrating early farmers or farmers and indigenous hunter-gatherers collided violently around 5300 BCE. This clash apparently resulted in a massacre of the Els Trocs farmers. The overkill reaction was possibly triggered by xenophobia or massive disputes over resources or privileges. In the present, violence and xenophobia are controlled and sanctioned through social codes of conduct and institutions. So that, rather than representing an insurmountable evolutionary inheritance, violence and ethnic nepotism can be overcome and a sustainable future achieved through mutual respect, tolerance and openness to multi-ethnic societies.
Document type :
Journal articles
Complete list of metadata
Contributor : Esther Lopez Montalvo <>
Submitted on : Tuesday, December 29, 2020 - 10:52:26 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, June 22, 2021 - 3:51:03 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, March 30, 2021 - 6:59:13 PM


Publisher files allowed on an open archive




Íñigo de Lagrán, José Guillén, Kurt Alt, Cristina Tejedor Rodríguez, Nicole Nicklisch, et al.. A massacre of early Neolithic farmers in the high Pyrenees at Els Trocs, Spain. Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group, 2020, 10 (1), ⟨10.1038/s41598-020-58483-9⟩. ⟨halshs-03090075⟩



Record views


Files downloads