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Pragmatique de l’insulte en politique : la performativité en perspective

Abstract : This communication is located in the field of language sciences and more particularly of pragmatics and discourse analysis understood as a sociolinguistics of discourse. 1967 marks the date of the last known and recorded duel between the deputies Gaston Deferre and René Ribière. It is from this event that we will deal with the relationship between injury and insult and the notion of reparation in politics (Austin 1962, Searle 1969, Rosier 2006, Lagorgette & Larrivée 2004, Fracchiolla 2011, 2018, Fracchiolla & Rosier 2019), based on the theoretical framework of verbal violence as developed by Moïse, Schultz-Romain Fracchiolla and Auger (2008a and b, 2013). The object of our communication will be to explain to what extent (s) direct insult has become today, in politics, a form of pragmatic nonsense and can therefore only advance in a form masked (Romain & Fracchiolla 2015, Fracchiolla 2019b), in formulations of indirect types, by allusion or irony. To do this, we will rely on various examples, including the sentences that have become famous (not without reason) by Jacques Chirac who responds to an apostrophe launched “Asshole! ", With a" Nice to meet you, I'm Chirac! ", Or even that of a Nicolas Sarkozy uttering a" get out of the way, you idiot! ”(Boutet 2009); but also on examples taken in the debates between two presidential rounds (such as that of 2017, productive in assault and recognized verbal violence) to explain the modalities of pragmatic updating. Insult, in fact, does not come down to isolated words or expressions that deal with the other, but can also be constructed in euphemistic finesse and allusive circumlocutions (Laforest & Vincent 2006, Fracchiolla 2019b). We will thus show to what extent and for what reasons the insult, if it is still present in politics, has nevertheless changed in nature in its modalities of expression over time. This will lead us to put it into perspective in the balance of the political and electoral game, in terms of changes in societal values, and what is more broadly understood by disqualification in the political game. Because, if the political context is not strictly speaking a hierarchical context, the object of the confrontation in and by the debate remains however to make emerge a dominant and a dominated - so that one can emerge in a high position and , ultimately, win the election. Also, in this context, it is the social meaning of the insult that prevails, because it is public and intended to tip the electoral balance and therefore also the fate of a country.
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Contributor : Beatrice Fracchiolla <>
Submitted on : Sunday, December 13, 2020 - 9:10:35 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, December 22, 2020 - 3:26:01 AM


  • HAL Id : halshs-03060244, version 1


Béatrice Fracchiolla. Pragmatique de l’insulte en politique : la performativité en perspective. Les usages politiques et sociaux de l'insulte, Sciences Po, CERAPS, Université de Lille, Oct 2020, Lille, France. ⟨halshs-03060244⟩



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