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Le recours à l’expérience comme dépassement de la non-arbitrarité : vers une extension des potentialités de la Théorie des Matrices et des Etymons

Abstract : Experience as a way of overcoming non-arbitrariness: towards an extension of the potentialities of the Theory of Matrices and Etymons Michaël Grégoire The Theory of Matrices and Etymons (see Bohas-Dat 2007, Bohas-Saguer 2006, Bohas 2016) is based on an embodied cognition by claiming the link between the notion of the submorphological matrix and the body organs solicited. Our object here is to show that this method of analysis would benefit from taking into account the notion of experience in order to extend further the possibilities of grouping together terms motivated by and in the experience of the speaking subject. This implies considering both the cognitive aspects relating to the embodiment of language but also to enaction (see Varela et al. 1991/1993, Depraz et al. 2011, Berthoz 1997) and situated cognition and sociality (Vygotsky 1978, Cowley 2009, Kravchenko 2012). Thus, submorphems can be presented as phenomenologically and culturally oriented bodily and mental acts linked to a 'class of sensorimotor experience' (Bottineau 2012: §31). These submorphems are thus "kinesic models of multimodal coordination (grasping, vocalization, oculomotricity, etc.)" which participate in the construction of experience and the cultural specification of a given language (cf. Bottineau 2017b). For example, the oculomotor path of a straightness is associated by the experience with the submorphism {tooth x vibrating} detected in the form tr, dr or r-d by Bottineau (2012) in application to English: tree, tower, direct, train, attract, road, to read, to drive, etc. (see Bottineau 2012: §30). In Spanish, we find, for example, the forms atraer/traer ("attract, bring"), tirar ("pull, throw"), derretir ("melt"), trepar ("climb"), verter ("pour"), brotar ("spurt"), metro ("underground"), tren ("train"), tranvía ("tramway"), directo ("direct"), tarangallo/trangallo ("stick hanging from the neck of the dogs"), etc. Furthermore, some lexicographically recorded jobs do not allow us to deal with the subtleties of the circumstances in which words are used, even though they play an essential role in the development of meaning, or a cultural trend that has been diachronically stabilized and allows a link to be established between form and meaning. This is for example the case of the Spanish triscar "twisting the teeth of a saw to make a more precise cut" where one perceives the straightness of the saw's path linked to the submorphems {tooth x vibrating} and the cut linked to the submorphem {fricative x velar}. However, it is precisely these factors based on lived experience that make it relevant to attach this or that term to this or that matrix and its notion. In order to illustrate our point, we will give several examples in Spanish extracted from corpora to show the cultural associations between different given concepts based on the corporal and situated experience (vision, oculomotricity, graphomotricity). Berthoz Alain (1997). Le sens du mouvement, Paris : Odile Jacob. Bohas Georges (2016). L'illusion de l'arbitraire du signe, Rennes : PU Rennes. Bohas Georges, Dat Mihaï (2007). Une théorie de l'organisation du lexique des langues sémitiques : matrices et étymons, Lyon, ENS Editions, 2007. Bohas Georges, Saguer Abderrahim (2006). « La Théorie des matrices et des étymons et l’explication de l’homonymie en arabe », Langues et Littératures du Monde Arabe, n°6, 53-96. Bottineau Didier (2012). « Submorphémique et corporéité cognitive ». Miranda, n°7, 26p. Bottineau Didier (2017b), « Du languaging au sens linguistique », Intellectica, n°68, 19-67. Cowley Stephen (2009). « Distributed language and dynamics ». Pragmatics & Cognition, n°17, Munich : John Benjamins, 495-507. Depraz Valérie, Varela Fracisco et Vermesch Pierre (2011). A l'épreuve de l'expérience: Pour une pratique phénoménologique, Bucharest : Zeta books. Kravchenko Alexander V. (2012). “Grammar as semiosis and cognitive dynamics”. Cognitive Dynamics in Linguistic Interactions, Ed A.. Kravchenko, 125-153. Cambridge Scholars Publish Varela Francisco, Rosch Eleanor, Thompson Evan (1993). L’inscription corporelle de l’esprit, traduit de l’anglais par V. Havelange, Paris : Seuil. Ed. or. The Embodied Mind, 1991.
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Michaël Grégoire. Le recours à l’expérience comme dépassement de la non-arbitrarité : vers une extension des potentialités de la Théorie des Matrices et des Etymons. Danielle Leeman. Hommage à Georges Bohas, A paraître. ⟨halshs-02996853⟩

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