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The Role of Leadership and Idiosyncrasy in US Foreign Policy Towards Pakistan

Abstract : How does leadership in the United States specifically affect its foreign policy decision-making towards Pakistan? Using the poliheuristic theory of decision-making, this paper explores how idiosyncratic factors such as leaders' perceptions, past experiences, and ideological orientations-along with the dynamic geopolitical environment of the world-affect the US foreign policy making process. It argues that the role of leadership increases when issues involve high-risk situations-for example after the 9/11 attacks, President Bush was autonomous 'enough' to devise the national security strategy vis-à-vis Pakistan. In a low-risk situation the role of leadership is either constrained by different actors, or the leadership utilizes the same actors such as the US Congress as leverage against Pakistan to entice or force it to bring its policy in line with the US national interests as perceived by the decision-makers.
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Contributor : Muhammad Nadeem Mirza <>
Submitted on : Monday, September 28, 2020 - 9:02:37 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 14, 2020 - 3:42:06 AM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, December 29, 2020 - 7:19:28 PM


The Role of leadership and ide...
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Muhammad Nadeem Mirza. The Role of Leadership and Idiosyncrasy in US Foreign Policy Towards Pakistan. Journal of Contemporary Studies, Faculty of Contemporary Studies (FCS), National Defence University Islamabad, 2018, 7 (2), pp.33-52. ⟨halshs-02951741⟩



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