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La rose comme gage vassalique : l'exemple des Briouze, seigneurs du Gower

Abstract : The rose is a flower with many meanings in medieval culture. A survey listing the occurences of roses through European databases and a study of four charters producted by the Briouzes, lords of Gower, exemplify the use of rose as fee. The symbolic dimension of the rose turns the fee into feudal pledge, which expresses the submission of the vassal to his lord. Ritualised in a context of feudal relations and chivalric culture, the rose becomes the emblem of feudal ove. Roses as symbolic fees appear in medieval charters at the turn of the 12th century. This practice spreads, reaching the march of Wales. At the end of the 13th century, it arises in the Gower peninsula held by the Briouzes, an Anglo-Norman family with mixed Anglo-Welsh identity. Four charters produced by the Briouzes reveal that sometimes, the lords of Gower received fees in kind, as roses garlands. This type of fee is rare among their charters, limited in time, space and network. Roses are required for "all services", in exchange of a fiefdom, a convention which has to be reneweds every years. The feedal pledge guarantees that the tenant is still serving his lord. At the end of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th century, the ownership of the Gower by the Briouzes is fragile. The legitimacy of its acquisition - given the 3dr of June 1200 to William III de Briouze by King John - is disputed. The Briouzes have to assert they hold this landship freely, unhampered by the royal jurisdiction.
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Submitted on : Friday, August 28, 2020 - 12:48:24 PM
Last modification on : Monday, March 1, 2021 - 1:58:30 PM

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Amélie Rigollet. La rose comme gage vassalique : l'exemple des Briouze, seigneurs du Gower. Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale, C.E.S.C.M, 2020, 63 (249), pp.3-18. ⟨10.4000/ccm.1895⟩. ⟨halshs-02924721⟩



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