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Pressions sur la ressource en eau et en sol dans le massif de l’Everest (Népal)- Compte-rendu de fin de projet- Résumé public

Abstract : Availability, uses and management of water in the Himalayas of Nepal (Everest) in the context of climate change and tourism growth In the Everest tourist region, the water and electricity needs for locals and tourists, the growth of irrigated market gardening and the multiplication of micro hydroelectric power plants capturing water from secondary streams, accentuate pressure on the water and soil resource. This multidisciplinary research (geography, hydrology, glaciology, climatology) aims to confront still poorly understood hydroclimatic processes related to climate change (melting of snow and glaciers, variations in precipitation, flows and seasonal availability of torrents water) with the uses and modes of management of water resources by local societies, in order to better understand the share of environmental factors and socio-economic factors on the observed changes. The objective is to determine the share of rainfall, snow and ice melt in the water budget; analyze in time and space the impact of variations in water availability on economic activities; to analyze water management methods and the unequal access of residents to the resource; and to evaluate the possible modes of adaptation of the local societies to the foreseeable tensions on this resource. Cross-reference instrumentation and modeling approaches of glaciologists and hydrologists with social science field survey methods The approach was to quantify the contribution of solid and liquid precipitation, melting glaciers and snow cover, to different reservoirs (surface, soil, subsoil) in 5 small sub-catchment areas of Dudh Koshi with icy surfaces, varied agro-pastoral practices and the strong presence of tourism. Ice mass balance estimates were made for white glaciers and debris covered glaciers and snow cover dynamics maps derived based on satellite imagery syntheses (MODIS, SPOT VGT). Several hydrological models (DHSVM, ISBA-SURFEX, HDSM, J2000), forced by field data from hydroclimatic measurement stations and supplemented by re-analysis data, are tested and compared to reduce uncertainty factors. A geolocalised systematic survey on water and electricity consumption was conducted in 187 housing units, supplemented by interviews with residents, and water and tourism stakeholders at the village level. A cartography of precipitation, soils (in Kharikhola), and sources, water mills, water supply systems and hydroelectric equipment identified in the field, was carried out. Results The region globally does not lack water. The growth in needs leads to seasonal tensions, particularly in hydroelectric supply. They are linked to the gap between water availability and agricultural and tourism calendars and water management patterns that produce inequalities, meanwhile hydroelectricity systems begin to reach their limits. The program has led to a spatialization of climate information (temperature and precipitation), an adaptation of modelling tools and a quantification of melt (snow and glaciers) to flows as well as a spatialization of social data, a measure of hydropower consumption and a better understanding of territorial functioning in the context of global changes. The work of the researchers gave rise to more than one hundred scientific publications. The Preshine program is a basic research project coordinated by the UMR 5319 Passage. It also associates the Himalayan Studies Center of Villejuif, the Hydrosciences laboratory of Montpellier, with the Institute IEES of Paris participation, the IGE laboratory of Grenoble and the CNRM-GAME of Grenoble, as well as several partners in Nepal (the Tribhuwan University, the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology, ICIMOD and EvK2-CNR). The project started in January 2014 and lasted 60 months. It benefited from ANR assistance for an overall cost of € 839 951, 00.
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https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-02553325
Contributor : Isabelle Sacareau <>
Submitted on : Friday, April 24, 2020 - 12:39:56 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, April 25, 2020 - 1:40:25 AM

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  • HAL Id : halshs-02553325, version 1

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Isabelle Sacareau. Pressions sur la ressource en eau et en sol dans le massif de l’Everest (Népal)- Compte-rendu de fin de projet- Résumé public. [Research Report] ANR-13-Senv-0005, ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche - France). 2019. ⟨halshs-02553325⟩

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