P. Ager, L. Bursztyn, and H. Voth, Killer incentives: Status competition and pilot performance during World War II, 2016.

C. Alos-ferrer, J. Garcia-segarra, and A. Ritschel, Performance curiosity, J Econ Psychol, vol.64, pp.1-17, 2018.

F. Amodio and M. A. Martinez-carrasco, Input Allocation, Workforce Management and Productivity Spillovers: Evidence from Personnel Data, Rev Econ Stud, vol.85, issue.4, pp.1937-1970, 2018.

T. Andrabi, J. Das, I. Khwaja, and A. I. , Report cards: The impact of providing school and child test scores on educational markets, Am Econ Rev, vol.107, issue.6, pp.1535-1563, 2017.

P. Arcidiacono, J. Kinsler, and J. Price, Productivity Spillovers in Team Production: Evidence from Professional Basketball, J Labor Econ, vol.35, issue.1, pp.191-225, 2017.

N. Arpey, Peer Effects Among Weavers: Evidence from a Chinese Textile Firm with a Relative Group Incentive Scheme. Mimeo, 2014.

H. J. Arnold, Effects of performance feedback and extrinsic reward upon high intrinsic motivation, Organ Behav Hum Perf, vol.17, issue.2, pp.275-288, 1976.

A. Ashraf, Do Performance Ranks Increase Productivity? Evidence from a Field Experiment, 2018.

N. Ashraf, O. Bandiera, and S. S. Lee, Awards unbundled: evidence from a natural field experiment, J Econ Behav Organ, vol.100, pp.44-63, 2014.

E. Auriol and R. Renault, Status and Incentives, Rand J Econ, vol.39, issue.1, pp.305-326, 2008.

A. Fryer and R. G. , An Economic Analysis of Acting White, Q J Econ, vol.120, issue.2, pp.551-583, 2005.

M. Aoyagi, Information feedback in a dynamic tournament, Games and Economic Behavior, vol.70, issue.2, pp.242-260, 2010.

G. Azmat and N. Iriberri, The importance of relative performance feedback information: Evidence from a natural experiment using high school students, J Publ Econ, vol.94, issue.5, pp.797-811, 2010.

G. Azmat and N. Iriberri, The provision of relative performance feedback: An analysis of performance and satisfaction, J Econ Manage Strat, vol.25, issue.1, pp.77-110, 2016.

G. Azmat, M. Bagues, A. Cabrales, N. Iriberri, P. Babcock et al., What you don't know... can't hurt you: A field experiment on relative performance feedback in higher education, J Eur Econ Ass, vol.93, pp.841-870, 2015.

O. Bandiera, I. Barankay, and I. Rasul, Social Preferences and the Response to Incentives: Evidence from Personnel Data, Q J Econ, vol.120, issue.3, pp.917-962, 2005.

O. Bandiera, I. Barankay, and I. Rasul, Social incentives in the workplace, Rev Econ Stud, vol.77, issue.2, pp.417-458, 2010.

O. Bandiera, I. Barankay, and I. Rasul, Team incentives: Evidence from a firm level experiment, J Eur Econ Assoc, vol.11, issue.5, pp.1079-1114, 2013.

O. Bandiera, V. Larcinese, and I. Rasul, Blissful ignorance? A natural experiment on the effect of feedback on students' performance, Labour Econ, vol.34, pp.13-25, 2015.

R. Banerjee, D. Gupta, N. Villeval, and M. C. , Self-confidence spillovers and motivated beliefs, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01760347

I. Barankay, Rankings and social tournaments: Evidence from a crowd-sourcing experiment. Mimeo, University of Pennsylvania, 2011.

I. Barankay, Rank Incentives: Evidence From a Randomized Workplace Experiment, 2012.

J. M. Baron and K. P. Gjerde, Peer pressure in an agency relationship, J Labor Econ, vol.15, issue.2, pp.234-254, 1997.

C. Bellemare, P. Lepage, and B. Shearer, Peer pressure, incentives, and gender: an experimental analysis of motivation in the workplace, Labour Econ, vol.17, issue.1, pp.276-283, 2010.

C. Bellemare and A. Sebald, Self-confidence and reactions to subjective performance evaluations, 2019.

R. Bénabou and J. Tirole, Self-confidence and personal motivation, Q J Econ, vol.117, issue.3, pp.871-915, 2002.

J. Berger, C. Harbring, and D. Sliwka, Performance appraisals and the impact of forced distribution -an experimental investigation, Manag Sci, vol.59, issue.1, pp.54-68, 2013.

L. Berger, K. Fiolleau, and C. Mactavish, 2019) I Know Something You Don't Know: The Effect of Relative Performance Information and Individual Performance Incentives on Knowledge Sharing, J Manage Accounting Research, vol.31, issue.2, pp.19-35

T. Besley and M. Ghatak, Status Incentives, Am Econ Rev, vol.98, issue.2, pp.206-211, 2008.

J. Beugnot, B. Fortin, G. Lacroix, and M. C. Villeval, Gender and Peer Effects on Performance in Social Networks, Eur Econ Rev, vol.113, pp.207-224, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00855047

S. Blader, C. Gartenberg, and A. Prat, Tournaments without prizes: Evidence from personnel records, Rev Econ Stud Blanes i Vidal J, Nossol M, vol.57, issue.10, pp.1721-1736, 2011.

J. C. Bol, The Determinants and Performance Effects of Managers' Performance Evaluation Biases, Account Rev, vol.86, issue.5, pp.1549-1575, 2011.

R. Brade, O. Himmler, and R. Jackle, Normatively framed relative performance feedbackfield experiment and replication, 2018.

C. Bradler, R. Dur, S. Neckermann, and A. Non, Employee recognition and performance: a field experiment, Manag Sci, vol.62, issue.11, pp.3085-3099, 2016.

S. Bradley, C. Green, and G. Leeves, Worker absence and shirking: Evidence from matched teacher-school data, Labour Econ, vol.14, issue.3, pp.319-334, 2007.

K. Breuer, P. Nieken, and D. Sliwka, Social ties and subjective performance evaluations: An empirical investigation, Rev Manag Sci, vol.2, 2013.

J. Brown, Quitters Never Win: The (Adverse) Incentive Effects of Competing with Superstars, J Polit Econ, vol.119, pp.982-1013, 2011.

S. V. Burks, J. P. Carpenter, L. Goette, and A. Rustichini, Rev Econ Stud, vol.80, issue.3, pp.949-983, 2013.

C. Burgers, A. Eden, M. D. Van-engelenburg, and S. Buningh, How feedback boosts motivation and play in a brain-training game, Comput Hum Behav, vol.48, pp.94-103, 2015.

L. Bursztyn and R. Jensen, How Does Peer Pressure Affect Educational Investments?, Q J Econ, vol.130, issue.3, pp.1329-1367, 2015.

L. Bursztyn and R. Jensen, Social image and economic behavior in the field: identifying, understanding and shaping social pressure, Annu Rev Econ, vol.9, pp.131-153, 2017.

T. Buser, L. Gerhards, and J. Van-der-weele, Responsiveness to Feedback as a Personal Trait, J Risk Uncert, vol.56, issue.2, pp.165-192, 2018.

M. Buurman, J. Delfgaauw, R. Dur, and R. Zoutenbier, When Do Teachers Respond to Student Feedback? Evidence from a Field Experiment, 2020.

J. M. Cabrera and A. Cid, Gender Differences to Relative Performance Feedback: A Field Experiment in Education. Working Papers 1704, 2017.

C. B. Cadsby, J. Engle-warnick, T. Fang, and F. Song, Invoking social comparison to improve performance by ranking employees: The moderating effects of public ranking, rank pay, and individual risk attitude, J Econ Psychol, vol.72, pp.64-79, 2019.

P. Casas-arce and F. A. Martinez-jerez, Relative Performance Compensation, Contests, and Dynamic Incentives, Manag Sci, vol.55, issue.8, pp.1306-1320, 2009.

C. Katreniak and D. , Dark Side of Incentives: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial in Uganda, 2018.

T. Y. Chan, J. Li, and L. Pierce, Compensation and Peer Effects in Competing Sales Teams, Manag Sci, vol.60, issue.8, pp.1965-1984, 2014.

D. C. Chan, Teamwork and Moral Hazard: Evidence from the Emergency Department, J Pol Econ, vol.124, issue.3, pp.734-770, 2016.

G. Charness, D. Masclet, and M. C. Villeval, The dark side of competition for status, Manag Sci, vol.60, issue.1, pp.38-55, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00799499

S. H. Chew, W. Huang, and X. Zhao, Motivated false memory. Mimeo, 2019.

T. Cornelissen, C. Dustmann, and U. Schönberg, Peer Effects in the Workplace, Am Econ Rev, vol.107, issue.2, pp.425-456, 2017.

M. Cotofan, Leaning from praise: Evidence from a field experiment with teachers, 2019.

J. Delfgaauw, R. Dur, J. Sol, and W. Verbeke, Tournament Incentives in the Field: Gender Differences in the Workplace, J Labor Econ, vol.31, issue.2, pp.305-326, 2013.

L. I. Dobrescu, M. Faravelli, R. Megalokonomou, and A. Motta, Rank Incentives and Social Learning: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. IZA DP, vol.12437, 2019.

M. Drouvelis and P. Paiardini, Feedback quality and performance in organisations. Mimeo, 2019.

F. Ederer, Feedback and Motivation in Dynamic Tournaments, J Econ Manage Strat, vol.19, issue.3, pp.733-769, 2010.

F. Ederer and E. Fehr, Deception and incentives: How dishonesty undermines effort provision, 2007.

D. Eil and J. M. Rao, The good news-bad news effect: Asymmetric processing of objective information about yourself, Am Econ J-Mic, vol.3, pp.114-138, 2011.

T. Ellingsen and M. Johannesson, Paying respect, J. Econ. Perspect, vol.21, issue.4, pp.135-150, 2007.

D. Epple and R. E. Romano, Peer Effects in Education: A Survey of the Theory and Evidence, Handbook of Social Economics, pp.1053-1163, 2011.

T. Eriksson, A. Poulsen, and M. C. Villeval, Feedback and incentives: experimental evidence, Labor Econ, vol.16, issue.6, pp.679-688, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00451557

T. Eriksson and M. C. Villeval, Respect and relational contracts, J Econ Behav Org, vol.81, pp.286-298, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00642527

S. Ertac, Does self-relevance affect information processing? Experimental evidence on the response to performance and non-performance feedback, J Econ Behav Org, vol.80, pp.532-545, 2011.

S. Ertac, L. Koçkesen, and D. Ozdemir, The role of verifiability and privacy in the strategic provision of performance feedback: theory and experimental evidence, Game Econ Behav, vol.100, pp.24-45, 2016.

S. Ertac, M. Gümren, and L. Koçkesen, Strategic feedback in teams: theory and experimental evidence, J Econ Behav Org, vol.162, pp.1-23, 2019.

A. Falk and A. Ichino, Clean evidence on peer effects, J Labor Econ, vol.24, issue.1, pp.39-57, 2006.

F. Fallucchi, E. Renner, and M. Sefton, Information Feedback and Contest Structure in Rentseeking Games, Eur Econ Rev, vol.64, pp.223-240, 2013.

C. Fershtman and U. Gneezy, The tradeoff between performance and quitting in high power tournaments, J. Eur. Econ. Assoc, vol.9, issue.2, pp.318-336, 2011.

L. Festinger, A theory of social comparison processes, Hum Relat, vol.7, pp.117-140, 1954.

M. Fischer and V. Wagner, Effects of Timing and Reference Frame of Feedback: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Secondary Schools, Gutenberg School of Management and Economics, 2018.

R. B. Freeman and A. M. Gelber, Prize structure and information in tournaments: Experimental evidence, Am Econ J-Appl Econ, vol.2, issue.1, pp.149-164, 2010.

A. Gershkov and M. Perry, Tournaments with Midterms Reviews. Game Econ Behav, vol.66, issue.1, pp.162-190, 2009.

C. Genakos and M. Pagliero, Interim rank, risk taking, and performance in dynamic tournaments, J Political Econ, vol.120, issue.4, pp.782-813, 2012.

S. Georganas, M. Tonin, and M. Vlassopoulos, Peer pressure and productivity: the role of observing and being observed, J Econ Behav Org, vol.117, pp.223-232, 2015.

L. Gerhards and N. Siemer, The impact of private and public feedback on worker performance: Evidence from the lab, Econ Inq, vol.54, issue.2, pp.1188-1201, 2016.

M. J. Gibbs, An Economic Approach to Process in Pay and Performance Appraisals, Harvard Business School. Mimeo, 1991.

D. Gill, Z. Kissova, J. Lee, and V. Prowse, First-place loving and last-place loathing: How rank in the distribution of performance affects effort provision, Manag Sci, 2018.

D. Gill and V. Prowse, A structural analysis of disappointment aversion in a real effort competition, Am Econ Rev, vol.102, issue.1, pp.469-503, 2012.

S. Goulas and R. Megalokonomou, Knowing who you actually are: The effect of feedback on short and long term outcomes, 2018.

E. D. Gould and T. R. Kaplan, Learning Unethical Practices from a Co-worker: The Peer Effect of Jose Canseco, Labour Econ, vol.18, pp.338-348, 2011.

E. D. Gould and E. Winter, Interactions between Workers and the Technology of Production: Evidence from Professional Baseball, Rev Econ Stud, vol.91, issue.1, pp.188-200, 2009.

A. De-grip and J. Sauermann, The effects of training on own and co-worker productivity: Evidence from a field experiment, Econ J, vol.122, pp.376-399, 2012.

O. Gürtler and C. Harbring, Feedback in tournaments under commitment problems: experimental evidence, J Econ Manage Strat, vol.19, issue.3, pp.771-810, 2010.

J. Guryan, K. Kroft, and M. J. Notowidigdo, Peer effects in the workplace: evidence from random groupings in professional golf tournaments, Am Econ J-Appl Econ, vol.1, issue.4, pp.34-68, 2009.

S. Haenni, Ever tried. Ever failed. No matter? On the demotivational effect of losing in repeated competitions, Game Econ Behav, 2019.

R. L. Hannan, R. Krishnan, and A. H. Newman, The effects of disseminating relative performance feedback in tournament versus individual performance compensation plans, Account Rev, vol.83, issue.4, pp.893-913, 2008.

R. L. Hannan, G. P. Mcphee, A. H. Newman, and I. D. Tafkov, The Effect of Relative Performance Information on Performance and Effort Allocation in a Multi-Task Environment, Account Rev, vol.88, issue.2, pp.553-575, 2013.

D. Herbst and A. Mas, Peer effects on worker output in the laboratory generalize to the field, Science, vol.350, issue.6260, pp.545-549, 2015.

H. Hermes, M. Huschens, F. Rothlauf, and D. Schunk, Motivating low achievers -Relative performance feedback in primary schools, NHH Discussion Paper SAM, vol.14, p.19, 2019.

L. Heursen, Does Relative Performance Information Lower Group Morale? Mimeo, 2019.

L. Huang and Z. Murad, Feedback spillover effect on competitiveness across unrelated tasks, Behav Research in Accounting, 2019.

D. Huffman, C. Raymond, and J. Shvets, Persistent Overconfidence and Biased Memory: Evidence from Managers, 2019.

A. Ichino and G. Maggi, Work Environment and Individual Background: Explaining Regional Shirking Differentials in a Large Italian Firm, Q J Econ, vol.115, issue.3, pp.1057-1590, 2000.

N. Jalava, J. S. Joensen, and E. Pellas, Grades and rank: Impacts of non-financial incentives on test performance, J. Econom. Behav. Organ, vol.115, pp.161-196, 2015.

S. Kajitani, K. Morimoto, and S. Suzuki, Information feedback in relative grading: Evidence from a field experiment, 2019.

E. Kandel and E. P. Lazear, Peer pressure and partnerships, J Pol Econ, pp.801-817, 1992.

G. C. Kane, S. Ransbotham, and . Boynton, A (2015) Is high performance contagious among knowledge workers? Working Paper

T. Kato and P. Shu, Performance Spillovers and Social Network in the Workplace: Evidence from Rural and Urban Weavers in a Chinese Textile Firm, 2008.

S. Kaur, M. Kremer, and S. Mullainathan, Self-Control and the Development of Work Arrangements, Am Econ Rev, vol.100, issue.2, pp.624-628, 2010.

A. N. Kluger and A. Denisi, The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, a Meta-analysis and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory, Psychol Bull, vol.119, pp.254-284, 1996.

M. Kosfeld and S. Neckermann, Getting More Work for Nothing? Symbolic Awards and Worker Performance, Am Econ J-Mic, vol.3, pp.86-99, 2011.

B. Kószegi, Ego Utility, Overconfidence, and Task Choice, J Eur Econ Assoc, vol.4, pp.673-707, 2006.

C. M. Kuhnen and A. Tymula, Feedback, self-esteem, and performance in organizations, Manag Sci, vol.58, issue.1, pp.94-113, 2012.

S. Levitt, J. List, S. Neckermann, and S. Sadoff, The behavioralist goes to school: Leveraging behavioral economics to improve educational performance, Am Econ J-Econ Polic, vol.8, issue.4, pp.183-219, 2016.

M. Lindquist, J. Sauermann, and Y. Zenou, Network effects on worker productivity, 2015.

A. Lizzeri, M. Meyer, and N. Persico, The Incentive Effects of Interim Performance Evaluations. CARESS Working Paper, pp.2-09, 2002.

E. A. Locke and G. P. Latham, Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement, 1990.

R. B. Lount and S. L. Wilk, Working harder or hardly working? Posting performance eliminates social loafing and promotes social laboring in workgroups, Manage Sci, vol.60, issue.5, pp.1098-1106, 2014.

S. Ludwig and G. K. Lünser, Observing Your Competitor-The Role of Effort Information in Two-stage Tournaments, J Econ Psychol, vol.33, pp.166-182, 2012.

S. D. Mago, A. C. Samek, and R. M. Sheremeta, Facing Your Opponents: Social Identification and Information Feedback in Contests, J Conflict Resolut, vol.60, issue.3, pp.459-481, 2016.

C. F. Manski, Identification of endogenous social effects: the reflection problem, Rev Econ Stud, vol.60, issue.3, pp.531-542, 1993.

L. Marchegiani, T. Reggiani, and M. Rizzolli, Loss averse agents and lenient supervisors in performance appraisal, J Econ Behav Organ, vol.131, pp.183-197, 2016.

A. Mas and E. Moretti, Peers at work, Am Econ Rev, vol.99, issue.1, pp.112-145, 2009.

M. M. Möbius, M. Niederle, P. Niehaus, and T. S. Rosenblat, Is honesty the best policy? An experimental study on the honesty of feedback in employer-employee relationships. Working Paper University of Cologne Mohnen A, Pokorny K, Sliwka D (2008) Transparency, Inequity Aversion, and the Dynamics of Peer Pressure in Teams -Theory and Evidence, Gender Differences in Incorporating Performance Feedback. Mimeo, Harvard University Möbius MM, Niederle M, Niehaus M, Rosenblat TS, vol.26, pp.693-720, 2006.

D. Moore and W. Klein, Use of absolute and comparative performance feedback in absolute and comparative judgments and decisions, Organ Behav Hum Dec, vol.107, issue.1, pp.60-74, 2008.

B. Moldovanu, A. Sela, and X. Shi, Contests for Status, J Polit Econ, vol.115, issue.2, pp.338-363, 2007.

K. R. Murphy and J. N. Cleveland, Performance appraisal: An organizational perspective, 1991.

D. Nadler, The effects of feedback on task group behavior: A review of the experimental research, Organ Behav Hum Perf, vol.23, issue.3, pp.309-338, 1979.

A. H. Newman and I. Tafkov, Relative Performance Information in Tournaments with Different Prize Structures, Account Org Soc, vol.39, issue.5, pp.348-361, 2014.

R. Nordstrom, P. Lorenzi, and R. V. Hall, A review of public posting of performance feedback in work settings, J Organ Behav Man, vol.11, issue.2, pp.101-124, 1990.

J. L. Pearce and W. P. Lyman, Employee Responses to Formal Performance Appraisal Feedback, J Appl Psychol, vol.71, issue.2, p.211, 1986.

C. Prendergast, The Provision of Incentives in Firms, J Econ Lit, vol.37, pp.7-63, 1999.

J. Rosaz, Biased information and effort, Econ Inq, vol.50, issue.2, pp.484-501, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00527563

J. Rosaz and M. C. Villeval, Lies and Biased Evaluation: A Real-Effort Experiment, J Econ Behav Organ, vol.84, issue.2, pp.537-549, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00576664

J. Rosaz, R. Slonim, and M. C. Villeval, Quitting and peer effects at work, Labour Econ, vol.39, pp.55-67, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00684812

J. P. Rose and P. D. Windschitl, How egocentrism and optimism change in response to feedback in repeated competitions, Org Behav Hum Dec, vol.105, issue.2, pp.201-220, 2008.

B. Sacerdote, Peer Effects in Education: How Might They Work, How Big Are They and How Much Do We Know Thus Far?, Handbook of the Economics of Education, vol.3, pp.249-277, 2011.

R. Sausgruber, A note on peer effects between teams, Exper Econ, vol.12, issue.2, pp.193-201, 2009.

D. J. Schleicher, R. A. Bull, and S. G. Green, Rater reactions to forced distribution rating systems, J. Management, vol.35, issue.4, pp.899-927, 2009.

A. Sebald and M. Walzl, Subjective Performance Evaluations and Reciprocity in Principal-Agent Relations, Scan J Econ, vol.116, issue.2, pp.570-590, 2014.

R. Smith, Assimilative and contrastive emotional reactions to upward and downward social comparisons, Handbook of Social Comparison: Theory and Research, pp.173-200, 2000.

T. So, P. Brown, A. Chaudhuri, D. Ryvkin, and L. Cameron, Piece-rates and tournaments: Implications for learning in a cognitively challenging task, J Econ Behav Organ, vol.142, pp.11-23, 2017.

D. Steinbach and E. Tatsi, Peer Effects, Free-Riding and Team Diversity, 2018.

T. Stinebrickner and R. Stinebrickner, Learning about academic ability and the college dropout decision, J Labor Econ, vol.30, issue.4, pp.707-748, 2012.

S. Sunder, V. Kumar, A. Goreczny, and T. Maurer, Why Do Salespeople Quit? An Empirical Examination of Own and Peer Effects on Salesperson Turnover Behavior, J Marketing Res, vol.54, issue.3, pp.381-397, 2017.

I. Tafkov, Private and Public Relative Performance Information under Different Compensation Contracts, Account Rev, vol.88, issue.1, pp.327-350, 2013.

C. Thöni and S. Gächter, Peer effects and social preferences in voluntary cooperation: a theoretical and experimental analysis, J Econ Psychol, vol.48, pp.72-88, 2015.

A. Tran and R. Zeckhauser, Rank as an inherent incentive: Evidence from a field experiment, J. Publ. Econ, vol.96, issue.9, pp.645-650, 2012.

N. Triplett, The Dynamogenic Factors in Pacemaking and Competition, Am J Psychol, vol.9, issue.4, pp.507-533, 1898.

R. Van-veldhuizen, H. Oosterbeek, and J. Sonnemans, Peers at work: Evidence from the lab, PLoS ONE, vol.13, issue.2, p.192038, 2018.

F. Waldinger, Peer Effects in Science: Evidence from the Dismissal of Scientists in Nazi Germany, Rev Econ Stud, vol.79, issue.2, pp.838-861, 2012.

D. Wozniak, W. T. Harbaugh, and U. Mayr, The menstrual cycle and performance feedback alter gender differences in competitive choice, J Labor Econ, vol.32, issue.1, pp.161-198, 2014.

S. Yamane and R. (. Hayashi, Peer Effects among Swimmers, Scand. J. Econ, vol.117, issue.4, pp.1230-1255, 2015.

R. B. Zajonc, Social facilitation, Science, vol.149, issue.3681, pp.269-274, 1965.

F. Zimmermann, The dynamics of motivated beliefs, Am. Econ. Rev, 2019.