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Le « Colombier » à Chézy-sur-Marne (Aisne, France) : analyses préliminaires d'un site inédit du Dernier Maximum Glaciaire.

Abstract : The “Colombier” site at Chézy-sur-Marne site (Aisne, France) is located in the southern part of the Aisne department, on top of a slope overlooking the Marne valley. Known from ancient surface collections, the site was identified during an archaeological survey carried out in 2010. The planned constructions did not threaten the discovered site and during four research campaigns (carried out between 2011 and 2014) it was possible to investigate an area of nearly 70 m2 and to collect about 5,000 objects, many of which were associatedwith anthropic features. The site was covered by carbonate loess deposits dated to the Upper Pleniglacial, which were between 40 and 80 cm thick. The presence of several anthropic features testifies to a fair preservation of the site despite several classical taphonomic phenomena occurring. Nine AMS samples made it possible to date the human occupation(s) at the site to around 18,500 uncal. BP. Reindeer and horse are the only two animal species identified, exhibiting differing hunting patterns. Seasonal information recovered from teeth remains and reindeer antler make it possible to assume that the occupations took place during several seasons from spring to autumn. Apparently, entire reindeer carcasses were brought to the site. The anatomical representation of horse remains is much sketchier and suggests that lower and upper limbs and skulls were preferentially brought to the site. The osseous industry is represented by five objects (four made of reindeer antler and one of bone (horse scapula): possible matrix extraction and a bâton percé (perforated baton) could be identified). The analysis of the lithic material evidences well-structured production organised around blade production intended for the manufacturing of the retouched toolkit, more particularly a large number of transverse burins. Use-wear analysis carried out on these transverse burins makes it possible to determine in an unprecedented way their use as multifunctional tools (for cutting, scraping, grooving), mainly in the processing of secondary animal resources (bone materials and skins). As regards the fossil shells that were discovered (n = 200) at least fifteen species could be identified stemming from the Middle Eocene period: Lutetian and Lower Bartonian deposits outcrop in the immediate vicinity of the site. These shells (gastropods and scaphopods) were used to produce personal ornaments but could also be used as tools (large cardium shells). Over 64 kg of stones were brought to the site by the Palaeolithic people as part of the supply from the local geological range (limestones; marlstones, sandstones). These materials were used for the construction of fireplaces. The analysis of the various oxidation stages of the heated stones makes it possible to estimate the heating temperatures, which were between 300 and 600° C. The study of the main fireplace (KL/20-21) revealed that it was used at least three times. The “Colombier” site appears to be closely linked with the exploitation of rich and numerous sources available in the sector. The site is located, on the one hand, in a strategic place overlooking the Marne valley from which it is possible to observe the mammal faunal migrations and, on the other hand, in a geological environment hosting abundant lithic resources and high-quality fossil shells.
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Submitted on : Friday, February 14, 2020 - 2:58:43 AM
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Cyril Montoya, Aline Averbouh, Olivier Bignon-Lau, Gaëlle Dumarçay, Nejma Goutas, et al.. Le « Colombier » à Chézy-sur-Marne (Aisne, France) : analyses préliminaires d'un site inédit du Dernier Maximum Glaciaire.. Cyril Montoya, Jean-Pierre Fagnart & Jean-Luc Locht. Préhistoire de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest : mobilité, climats et identités culturelles, Volume 2 : Paléolithique supérieur ancien, Paléolithique final - Mésolithique, XXVIIIe Congrès préhistorique de France, Société Préhistorique Française, Amiens (30 mai - 4 juin 2016), 2, Société préhistorique française, pp.141-163, 2020, Paléolithique supérieur ancien, Paléolithique final - Mésolithique, 978-2-913745-79-2. ⟨halshs-02478614⟩

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