S. A. Kuttner, Cabinet Fit for a Queen: The ?????? as Posidippus' gem museum

(. Gutzwiller and . Dir, The New Posidippus. A Hellenistic Poetry Book, pp.148-151, 2005.

W. A. See and . Cheshire, Aphrodite Cleopatra, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, vol.43, pp.151-191, 2007.

S. Strano and . Tolemaico, Revisione critica dell'iconografia di Cleopatra VII Philopator, 2015.

R. Schilling, Les origines de la Vénus romaine, Latomus, vol.17, pp.3-26, 1958.

R. Schilling, Controverse à propos de la Vénus romaine (réponse aux observations de P

. Boyancé, Revue des études anciennes, pp.107-110, 1959.

R. Schilling, La relation Venus-Venia, Latomus, vol.21, pp.3-7, 1962.

, Galateia is attested in Homer's catalogue of Nereids (Iliad 18.45; Hesiod, Theogony, vol.250

P. , Library 1.11); she is especially present in etiological stories (Douris of Samos, BNJ 76 F58) and in lyrics: Theocritus (Idyls, vol.6

, Callimachus fr, pp.378-379

. Virgil, Bucolica 1.30-31, 3.64-65, 72, 7.37, 9, p.39

, Aeneis 9, pp.102-103

. Ovid, Amores 2.11.34; Metamorphoses 13, pp.738-968

, Fasti 6, pp.733-736

, Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica, vol.1, pp.134-136

. Martial, Book of Spectacles, vol.30, pp.3-4

, Silius Italicus, Punica 14, pp.221-226

. Statius,

;. P. Lucian and . Weizsäcker, Dialogues of the Sea Gods 1, True Histories 2.3; Philostratus, Images 2.18, and infra n. 86; cf, Roschers Lexikon, vol.1, pp.1586-1589

G. Weicker, Galateia 1

L. Séchan, Légendes?, pp.34-37

S. M. Subias and &. Galateia, Lexicon iconographicum? 5, pp.1000-1005, 1990.

A. R. Ghiotto, Il mito di Polifemo e Galatea nella pittura della prima età imperiale, For the epigrams in the Latin Anthology, S. T. Stevens, Image and Insight: Ekphrastic Epigrams in the Latin Anthology, vol.2, pp.132-169, 1983.

W. J. Schneider, Zu Tisch mit der Schönen Galatee. Zur missglückten Textkonstitution zweier Epigramme im Salmasianus, Classica et Mediaevalia, vol.50, pp.189-192, 1999.

P. Paolucci, Il 'Ciclo di Galatea' (Anth. Latina 140-143 S.B. = 151-154 R.), Bollettino di Studi Latini, vol.32, pp.111-127, 2002.

S. A. Ad, F. Dan, N. Grenet, and . Sims-williams, Homeric Scenes?

, The Sea Thiasos of Nereids and Tritons in the Roman Mosaics of Turkey, Mosaics of Turkey and Parallel Developments in the Rest of the Ancient and Medieval World, pp.631-655, 2012.

. K. Cf and . Dunbabin, The Roman Banquet: Images of Conviviality, 2003.

P. Veneris, The Vigil of Venus" v. 1, 8, 12, Les Belles Lettres, 1961². 1, vol.27, p.93

, Andrea Cucchiarelli in the BUR collection, 2003.

&. Studi, . Xi, . Dei-geographika-di-strabone, ;. Lecce, G. Traina et al., ??????? -?????? ? ?????-????????? ? ??????????????? ??????????, ??????, 1987. For the history and archaeology of the Albanian kingdom, see especially ?. ?. ??????, ?????? ?? ??????? ? ???????? ?????????? ???????, Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, vol.141, pp.72-106, 1959.

. ?. ??, . ?. ???????-;-?, . ?. ?????-;-?, . ?. ???????-;-?, . ?. ???????-;-? et al., about our plate). For the historical geography of Albania, ???????????????????? ? ?????????? ????? ?????????? ??????? ? ???????? ? ??????????????? ?????: IV ??? ?? ?.?. -III ??? ?.?., ????, pp.117-147, 1983.

?. ?. ???????, ?????????? ??????? ? ????????: ????????-?????????????? ?

G. Greatrex and S. N. Lieu, The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars II. AD 363-630. A Narrative Sourcebook, Res gestae diui Saporis (ca. 262 AD), and the inscription of Kirder 12-13 (ca, vol.57, pp.77-96, 1991.

.. ?. ?? and . ???????, ?????????? ????? ? ????????? ?? ??????? ??????, ??????? ??????? ???????, vol.3, pp.146-149, 1976.

P. O. Harper, P. ?. Meyers-;-?, and . ????????, Une coupe en argent du début de l'époque sassanide provenant des fouilles d'Armasiskhevi (Géorgie), Silver Vessels of the Sasanian Period: Royal Imagery, vol.56, pp.24-25, 1974.

, Roman Policy in Transcaucasia from Pompey to Domitian, Proceedings of a Colloquium Held at Ankara in, pp.67-76, 1988.

D. Braund, Coping with the Caucasus: Roman Responses to Local Conditions in Colchis, pp.31-43

D. Braund, Hadrian and Pharasmanes, Klio, vol.73, pp.208-219, 1991.

D. Braund,

M. ,

A. Bais, . Caucasica, . Ethnos, ;. I. Milano, and . Gagoshidze, Iberia and Rome: The Excavations of the Palace at Dedoplis Gora and the Roman Influence in the Caucasian Kingdom of Iberia, Langenweissbach, pp.1-40, 2001.

L. Zerbini, G. Gamkrelidze, T. Todua, and . Romani-nella-terra-del-vello-d'oro, La Colchide e l'Iberia in età romana, 2012.

L. Kavtaradze, Caucasica II. The Georgian chronicles and the raison d'être of the Iberian kingdom, Orbis Terrarum, vol.6, pp.177-237, 2000.

A. B. Bosworth, For literary sources on the Alans, see especially A. Alemany, Sources on the Alans, A Critical Compilation, Leiden-Boston-Köln, vol.81, pp.217-255, 1977.

G. Gnoli, Il nome degli Alani nelle iscrizioni sassanidi: considerazioni linguistiche e storiche sul tema dell'opposizione tra Iran esterno e Iran interno, Il Caucaso: cerniera fra culture dal Mediterraneo alla Persia (secoli IV-XI), pp.831-866, 1996.

. Plutarch, Life of Pompey, pp.34-37

, Cassius Dio, vol.37, pp.477-496

, Cassius Dio 49.24. Following the Res gestae Diui Augusti (5), the Albanian king recognized Roman suzerainty

. Tacitus, 6-8, 30-41, Annals, vol.13, pp.24-31

. Tacitus,

, Galateia in the Land of the Amazons: The silver plate of Yenikend (Azerbaijan) and cultural transfers between the Greco-Roman world and the Caucasus 71

, This is not an isolated reference in Latin imperial poetry: more generally, C. Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica answer the interest of the Flavians in the Pontic-Caucasian edges of the Empire 116 . In 114 AD, Trajan transformed Armenia into a Roman province. He also gave a client-king to Albania and accepted the submission of the Sarmatians from the Northern Caucasus, as well as that of the Iberians, Albania, on the road to Derbent, between 84 and 96 AD, the Legio XII Fulminata consolidated the fortress of Bejuk / Boyuk Dash (in the region of Gobustan), p.117

, Despite a moment of tension between the Roman emperor Hadrian and Pharasmenes II of Iberia, who refused to renew his submission to Rome at Satala in 129 AD, the exchanges of diplomatic gifts continued. They are attested by the Historia Augusta and by the discoveries in the royal necropolis of Iberia, mentioned above: in particular, a silver plate with the portrait of Antinous, found in the tomb supposed to have belonged to the high Iberian dignitary Aspaurukis, is a direct proof of these contacts during Hadrian's reign 118 . Ca. 141 AD, under Antoninus Pius, maybe due 115 CIL III 6051 = OGIS 379 = ILS 8795 = IGRR

, Pliny the Elder 6.29-30)

A. I. Boltunova, Quelques notes sur l'inscription de Vespasien trouvée à Mtskheta, Klio, vol.53, pp.213-222, 1971.

H. Halfmann-;-voir-aussi and G. Migliorati, L'incarico militare di M. Hirrius Fronto Neratius Pansa e gli interessi militari romani in area caucasica, Analecta Brixiana. Contributi dell'Istituto di Filologia e storia dell, vol.8, pp.125-153, 1986.

F. Grosso, Aspetti della politica orientale di Domiziano I. Albania, iberia caucasica e Armenia, Epigraphica, vol.16, pp.117-179, 1954.

R. Heindereich, Zur östlichsten lateinischen Inschrift, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol.52, pp.213-214, 1983.

. Arrian, Periplus of the Black Sea, vol.11, issue.2-3

, Eutropius, Breviarium, vol.8, issue.2-3

R. Festus, , 2002.

. Hieronymus, Chronicon (the 223 rd Olympiad)

H. Augusta and H. , ? he gave many gifts to many people, but to nobody more than the ones for the Iberians ? / multis ingentia dedit munera, sed nulli maiora quam Hiberorum?"), 21.13. The medallion vase showing Antinous' portrait must date from the period following Antinous' accidental death in the Nile, but before Hadrian's death (therefore between 130/131 and 138 AD). In a nearby tomb, archaeologists found a high relief medallion vase showing the goddess Tyche / Fortuna with cornucopia and a vase with a Roman portrait, maybe with Heracles' features. Heracles is one of the mythical characters most connected with the Caucasus, where he was believed to have set Prometheus free. Among the numerous publications, see K. Matchabeli, vol.17, pp.291-293, 1972.

. Th,

. Opper, Hadrian's Diplomatic Gifts in Georgia, Hadrian, Empire and Conflict, British Museum, pp.190-193, 2008.

G. Gamkrelidze, Iberia-Colchis (The Journal of the Otar Lordkipanidze Centre of Archaeology of the Georgian National Museum) Supplement, 2014. For analogous to the Caucasian mission of Q. Iunius Rusticus, this Pharasmenes II received new territories as well as an equestrian statue in the temple of Bellona in Rome

, Over the following two years, the Romans took Seleucia and Ctesiphon and entered Media Atropatene. Under the governor Avidius Cassius, a border was established on the Khabur and Euphrates Rivers; the Romans were also able to reinstall their favorite, Sohaemus, on the Armenian throne until the 180s and the return of the Parthians, under their king Vologases V. As a direct expression of the strong links between Rome and Iberia, in the necropolis of Mtskheta there is also a silver plate with a medallion representing Marcus Aurelius 120 . Under Commodus, in 184-185 AD, the Legio XV Apollinaris was still stationed in Armenia (CIL III 6052 = ILS 394). Without any other historical documents, p.119

. Afterwards, AD) 121 or under Domitian, after the peace of Nisibis of 298, when the Romans took control of Iberia. The diffusion of Christianity and the creation of the three Caucasian alphabets were effects of the strong historical links with Armenia and the West. Yet, from the 4th century AD onwards, Sasanian dominion seems strongly rooted in Albania. Its concrete expression was the consolidation of defenses at the passages through which the northern nomads could invade the Empire. Another originality of Late Antiquity was the cultural dimension of the conflicts: Christians seem to have looked for support to Armenia and the Roman Empire during conflicts with the pagan barbarians and Zoroastrians. But altogether, after the mid 3 rd century AD, Iranian influence seems to have predominated in Albania. discoveries in the Bosporan Kingdom, see ?.?. ????????, ????? ??????? ?????. ??????? ????????, pp.43-62, 2009.

?. ?. ????????? and ?. ?. ????????, ?????????? ????????? ????????????? ??? I ?. ?? ?.?. -I ?. ?.?. ?? ????????? ???????? ? ???????? ?????????, ?????????? ???????. ????? ? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????????: ????????? ????????????? ??????? ???????????, pp.270-278, 2013.

A. Historia, Antoninus Pius 9

, Cassius Dio 69, vol.15

, Unterwegs zum goldenen Vlies. Archäologische Funde aus Georgien, vol.325, p.181, 1995.

, Historia Augusta, Aurelianus, vol.27

D. Braund, These two passages are rather like crossroads of mountain passes in a network of ways across the Caucasus. See D. Braund, Ancient Civilisations from Scythia to Siberia, vol.9, pp.175-191, 2000.

S. D. Lawrence and T. J. Wilkinson, The Northern and Western Borderlands of the Sasanian Empire: Contextualising the Roman / Byzantine and Sasanian frontier, Sasanian Persia. Between Rome and the Steppes of Eurasia, pp.99-125, 2017.

, The main Hellenistic and Roman sources are Ps, Scymnos fr. 20 Marcotte, pp.925-237

. Diller)-ap, ;. Pseudo-arrian, and D. Braund, See also the debate between, on the one side, the more critical -and even skeptical -voices of D. Magie, Periplus of the Black Sea 45 Podossinov, vol.1, pp.166-173, 1910.

P. Callieri and ;. Schneider, La presunta via commerciale tra l'India e Roma attraverso l'Oxus e il Mar Caspio: nuovi dati di discussione, pp.537-546