, Fake News Student Twitter Data Challenge | DiscoverText, 2016.

, How to Spot Fake News, 2016.

, Fake News Challenge, 2017.

B. Adair, Principles of politifact and the truth-o-meter, 2011.

M. Atanasova, P. Comita, S. Melina, and M. Stoyanova, Automatic Detection of Deception. Non-verbal communication, 2014.

J. Bevendorff, B. Stein, M. Hagen, and M. Potthast, Elastic chatnoir: Search engine for the clueweb and the common crawl, Advances in Information Retrieval, pp.820-824, 2018.

P. Bojanowski, E. Grave, A. Joulin, and T. Mikolov, Enriching word vectors with subword information, Transactions of the Association for Computational Linguistics, vol.5, pp.135-146, 2017.

C. Castillo, M. Mendoza, and B. Poblete, Information credibility on twitter, Proceedings of the 20th international conference on World wide web, pp.675-684, 2011.

N. Conroy, V. Rubin, and Y. Chen, Automatic Deception Detection: Methods for Finding Fake News, 2015.

C. Cortes and V. Vapnik, Support-vector networks, Machine learning, vol.20, issue.3, pp.273-297, 1995.

M. Deacon, a world of post-truth politics, Andrea Leadsom will make the perfect PM, 2016.

T. Egan, The post-truth presidency, 2016.

B. Feldman, Here's a Chrome Extension That Will Flag Fake-News Sites for You, 2016.

M. Gahirwal, S. Moghe, T. Kulkarni, D. Khakhar, and J. Bhatia, Fake news detection, International Journal of Advance Research, vol.4, issue.1, pp.817-819, 2018.

A. Hoerl and R. Kennard, Ridge regression: Biased estimation for nonorthogonal problems, Technometrics, vol.12, issue.1, pp.55-67, 1970.

E. Hunt, What is fake news? How to spot it and what you can do to stop it. The Guardian, 2016.

G. Ke, Q. Meng, T. Finley, T. Wang, W. Chen et al., Lightgbm: A highly efficient gradient boosting decision tree, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, pp.3149-3157, 2017.

A. Kraskov, H. Stögbauer, and P. Grassberger, Estimating mutual information, Physical review E, vol.69, issue.6, p.66138, 2004.

J. Ma, W. Gao, P. Mitra, S. Kwon, B. Jansen et al., Detecting rumors from microblogs with recurrent neural networks, IJCAI, pp.3818-3824, 2016.

J. Ma, W. Gao, Z. Wei, Y. Lu, and K. F. Wong, Detect rumors using time series of social context information on microblogging websites, Proceedings of the 24th ACM International on Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, pp.1751-1754, 2015.

E. Mandonnet and E. Paquette, Les candidats face aux intox de Web. L'Express (3429), pp.28-31, 2017.

T. Mikolov, K. Chen, G. Corrado, and J. Dean, Efficient estimation of word representations in vector space, 2013.

D. Morris, Eli Pariser's Crowdsourced Brain Trust Is Tackling Fake News | Fortune, 2016.

K. Rapoza, Can 'Fake News' Impact The Stock Market?, 2017.

H. Rashkin, E. Choi, J. Jang, S. Volkova, and Y. Choi, Truth of varying shades: Analyzing language in fake news and political fact-checking, Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing, pp.2931-2937, 2017.

O. Solon and J. Wong, Facebook's plan to tackle fake news raises questions over limitations. The Guardian, 2016.

N. Twyman, J. Proudfoot, R. Schuetzler, A. Elkins, and D. Derrick, Robustness of Multiple Indicators in Automated Screening Systems for Deception Detection, J. of Management Information Systems, vol.32, issue.4, pp.215-245, 2015.

S. Volkova, K. Shaffer, J. Jang, and N. Hodas, Separating facts from fiction: Linguistic models to classify suspicious and trusted news posts on twitter, Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, vol.2, pp.647-653, 2017.

K. Weinberger, A. Dasgupta, J. Langford, A. Smola, and J. Attenberg, Feature hashing for large scale multitask learning, Proceedings of the 26th Annual International Conference on Machine Learning, pp.1113-1120, 2009.

L. Zhou, J. Burgoon, J. Nunamaker, and D. Twitchell, Automating Linguistics-Based Cues for Detecting Deception in Text-based Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication, Group Decision and Negotiation, pp.81-106, 2004.