, With the exception of children of Neutralist political leaders, who mostly lived in Vientiane or in areas administered by the RLG until the early 1960s, at which time the Neutralists split, some siding with the PL and others joining the RLG in Vientiane. 11. Names of interviewees have been changed
, This was true in the instance of Douangdi. A senior medical practitioner in Savannakhet, Douangdi was sent to North Vietnam in the mid-1960s thanks to the intervention of Sisomphone Lovenxay, one of the founding leaders of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
, A tasaeng is a former administrative division, roughly referring to an intermediary level between the village and the district
, depicting how Viet Minh forces were able to enjoy the support of about 20 villages by gaining the trust of their ethnic leader in the district of Dakcheung in present, 2006.
, Hà B?c Province, situated to the northeast of Hanoi, was created in 1963 following the fusion of two provinces, B?c Ninh and B?c Giang. In1996, the process was reversed and the province of Hà B?c was once more divided into two provinces
, Lao Theung (for those living on the slopes of the mountains), and Lao Sung (for population groups living on the mountain tops), although officially banned and practically rather inaccurate, The use of generic terms, Lao Lum (referring to people living in the plains and valleys)
, The Khmu and the Hmong constitute the largest and second largest minority groups in Laos, respectively. The Khmu accounted for nearly 11 percent of the population according to the 2005 national census
, the President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, announced the launch of Operation Rolling Thunder (1965-68), an air bombing campaign against North Vietnam, 1965.
, The attack probably took place in late 1972. The US army continued its massive bombing (including the use of B-52 warplanes) on North Vietnam until, Operations Linebacker 1 and 2 were conducted between May and October and in December 1972, respectively. The bombing of the school caused a dozen deaths and injuries among students, 1968.
, The departure of the Americans from Laos dealt a fatal blow to the Royal Lao Armed Forces. Without US financial and military support, they disintegrated rapidly. Less than a month later, 1973.