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The Pioneers of Biodynamics in USA: The Early Milestones of Organic Agriculture in the United States

Abstract : Biodynamics has played a key role in environmental and sustainable development. Rudolf Steiner founded the Experimental Circle of Anthroposophic Farmers and Gardeners at Koberwitz (now Kobierzyce, Poland) in 1924. The task for the Experimental Circle was to test Steiner’s ‘hints’ for a new and sustainable agriculture, to find out what works, and to publish and tell the world. Ehrenfried published his book Bio-Dynamic Farming and Gardening in New York in 1938, fulfilling Steiner’s directive. In the interval, 1924-1938, 39 individual Americans joined the Experimental Circle. They were the pioneers of biodynamics and organics in USA, and finally their names and locations are revealed. Of the 39 members, three received copies of the Agriculture Course in both German and English, while other copies were shared (n=6). Of the 35 Agriculture Courses supplied to American Experimental Circle Members, over half were numbered copies of the German edition (n=20), and the rest were the English edition (n=15). A majority of members were women (n=20), along with men (n=17), and undetermined (n=2). Members were from 11 states: New York (n=18), New Jersey (n=5), Ohio (n=4), Hawaii (n=3), Connecticut (n=2), Missouri (n=2), California (n=1), Florida (n=1), Maine (n=1), Maryland (n=1), and Pennsylvania (n=1). The revelation of the earliest pioneers of biodynamics, and thus organics, in USA provides 39 starting points for further research that their stories and achievements may be told.
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John Paull. The Pioneers of Biodynamics in USA: The Early Milestones of Organic Agriculture in the United States. American Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, American Institute of Science, 2019, 6(2), pp.89 - 94. ⟨halshs-02183060⟩

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