L. &. Aunio and . Petzell, The impact of sociolinguistic factors on the usage of the preprefix in some G languages, Fifth International Conference on the Bantu Languages, 2013.

J. Baka, , 2000.

J. Baka, Pourquoi une forme de type *-pái "nouveau" en protobantou, Studies in African Comparative Linguistics, with Special Focus on Bantu and Mande, pp.139-146, 2005.

Y. Bastin, Les déverbatifs bantous en -e, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, vol.11, pp.151-174, 1989.

Y. Bastin, A. Coupez, and E. , Bantu Lexical Reconstructions 3. Tervuren: Royal Museum for Central Africa, online database: linguistics.africamuseum.be/BLR3.html (last accessed, 2002.

J. A. Blanchon, Les formes nominales de citation a prefixe haut en pounou (bantu B43), Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, vol.18, issue.2, pp.129-138, 1997.

J. A. Blanchon, Semantic/pragmatic conditions on the tonology of the Kongo nounphrase: a diachronic hypothesis, Theoretical aspects of Bantu tone, pp.1-32, 1998.

G. D. Bokamba, Specificity and definiteness in Dzamba, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.2, pp.217-237, 1971.

L. Buell, The distribution of the Nguni augment: a review, 2009.

H. Carter, Coding, style and the initial vowel in north Rhodesian Tonga: a psycholinguistic study, African Language Studies, vol.4, pp.1-42, 1963.

G. Cinque, Deriving Greenberg's Universal 20 and its exceptions, Linguistic Inquiry, vol.36, issue.3, pp.315-332, 2005.

G. G. Corbett, The agreement hierarchy, Journal of Linguistics, vol.15, pp.203-224, 1979.
DOI : 10.1017/s0022226700016352

G. G. Corbett, , 1991.

T. M. Crane, L. M. Hyman-&-s.-nsielanga, and . Tukumu, A Grammar of Nzadi (B.865) A Bantu Language of the Democratic Republic of Congo with an Appendix of ProtoBantu, 2011.

D. Creissels, Syntaxe générale, une introduction typologique. 2. La phrase, 2006.

D. Creissels, Construct forms of nouns in African languages, Proceedings of Conference on Language Documentation & Linguistic Theory, vol.2, pp.73-82, 2009.

D. Creissels, The 'new adjectives' of Tswana, Word Classes: Nature, Typology and Representations, pp.75-94, 2014.

W. Croft, Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective, 2001.

M. E. Daniel and . Moravcsik, Associative plurals, The World Atlas of Language Structures, pp.150-153, 2005.

D. Blois and K. F. , The Augment in the Bantu languages, Africana Linguistica, vol.4, pp.85-165, 1970.

M. Devos, A Grammar of Makwe, 2008.

G. Dimmendaal, Historical Linguistics and the Comparative Study of African Languages, 2011.

C. M. Doke, The significance of class 1a of Bantu nouns, Festschrift Meinhof: Sprachwissenschaftliche und andere Studien, pp.196-203, 1927.

C. M. Doke, Textbook of Zulu Grammar. Sixth Edition. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longman, 1997.

J. L. Doneux, Données sur la classe 15 nominale en bantou, Africana Linguistica, vol.3, pp.1-22, 1967.
DOI : 10.3406/aflin.1967.868

U. Ernst, Esquisse grammaticale du kako, 1992.

G. Forges, La classe de l'infinitif en bantou, Africana Linguistica, vol.9, pp.257-264, 1983.
DOI : 10.3406/aflin.1983.921

T. Givón, Syntactic change in Lake Bantu: a rejoinder, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.5, issue.1, pp.117-139, 1974.

T. Givón, Syntax : An Introduction. Amsterdam, 2001.

J. Good, How to become a, Kwa" noun. Morphology, vol.22, issue.2, pp.293-335, 2012.

J. H. Greenberg, Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements, Universals of Language. Cambridge: M.I, 1963.

J. H. Greenberg, How does a language acquire gender markers, vol.3, pp.47-82, 1978.

E. Gregersen, Prefix and pronoun in Bantu, 1967.

C. Grégoire, , 1975.

C. &. Grégoire, Janssens (1999) L'augment en bantou du nord-ouest, Bantu Historical Linguistics: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives, pp.413-429

P. Hadermann, Les formes nomino-verbales de classes 5 et 15 dans les langues bantoues du Nord-Ouest, pp.431-471, 1999.

L. Harjula, The Ha Language of Tanzania: Grammar, Texts and Vocabulary, 2004.

J. A. Hawkins, Word Order Universals, 1983.

T. Heath, A Preliminary Grammar Sketch of the Mekaa Noun and Verb Morphology, 1998.

A. P. Hendrikse, Number as a categorizing parameter in Southern Bantu: an exploration in cognitive grammar, South African Journal of African Languages, vol.10, issue.4, pp.384-400, 1990.

G. Hulstaert, Grammaire du lomongo. Deuxieme partie, Morphologie. Tervuren: Musée royal de l'Afrique centrale, 1965.

G. Hulstaert, Grammaire du lomongo. Troisième partie, 1966.

L. M. Hyman, A Phonological Study of Fe'fe'-Bamileke. Studies in African Linguistics, 1972.

L. M. Hyman, Basaá (A43), The Bantu Languages, pp.257-282, 2003.

L. M. Hyman and . Katamba, The Augment in Luganda: Syntax or Pragmatics?, Theoretical Aspects of Bantu Grammar, pp.209-256, 1993.

R. Kamanda-kola, A propos de la tonalité en zamba, Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, vol.33, pp.83-103, 1993.

R. Kamanda-kola, Notes sur l'augment en zamba, Annales Aequatoria, vol.15, pp.399-409, 1994.

J. Kamba-muzenga, Substitutifs et possessifs en bantou, 2003.

A. R. Kasonde, Phonologie et morphologie de la langue bemba, 2009.

J. U. Kavari and L. &. Marten, Tone cases in Otjiherero: head-complement relations, linear order, and information structure, Africana Linguistica, vol.18, pp.315-353, 2012.

M. Kenstowicz, On the Origin of Tonal Classes in Kinande Noun Stems, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.37, issue.2, pp.115-151, 2008.

M. Leitch, Babole (C101), The Bantu Languages, pp.392-421, 2003.

C. T. Maganga and . Schadeberg, Kinyamwezi: Grammar, Texts, Vocabulary. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe, 1992.

J. F. Maho, A comparative study of Bantu noun classes, 1999.

A. E. Meeussen, Essai de grammaire rundi, Musée royal du Congo belge, 1959.

A. E. Meeussen, Bantu Grammatical Reconstructions, Africana Linguistica, vol.3, pp.79-121, 1967.

M. Meeuwis, A Grammatical Overview of Lingála München: Lincom, 2010.

W. J. Möhlig, L. &. Marten, and . Kavari, A Grammatical Sketch of Herero, 2002.

M. Mous, Nen (A44), The Bantu Languages, pp.283-306, 2003.

C. &. Mudzingwa and . Kadenge, An analysis of the ghost augment in chiShona, South African Journal of African Languages, vol.33, issue.1, pp.87-93, 2013.

S. Nicolle, Semantic-Pragmatic Change in Bantu -no Demonstrative Forms, Africana Linguistica, vol.18, pp.193-234, 2012.

S. Nicolle, A grammar of Digo: A Bantu language of Kenya and Tanzania, 2013.

S. Nicolle, Discourse Functions of Demonstratives in Eastern Bantu Narrative Texts, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.43, issue.2, pp.125-144, 2014.

F. Nsuka-nkutsi, Les structures fondamentales du relatif dans les langues bantoues, 1982.

K. M. O'connor and . Patin, The syntax and prosody of apposition in Shingazidja, Phonology, vol.32, issue.1, pp.111-145, 2015.

P. Ondo-mebiame, L'augment en fang ntumu, Revue gabonaise des sciences du langage, vol.2, pp.60-77, 2001.

C. Patin, The Augment in Shingazidja. Paper presented at the SOAS-UGent Workshop on Parametric Approaches to Morphosyntactic Variation in Bantu, 2017.

M. Petzell, The Kagulu Language of Tanzania: Grammar, Texts and Vocabulary, 2008.

L. Polak-bynon, L'expression des ordinaux dans les langues bantoues, Africana Linguistica, vol.2, pp.127-159, 1965.

J. Rijkhoff, The Noun Phrase, 2002.

J. Rijkhoff, Descriptive and discourse-referential modifiers in a layered model of the noun phrase, Linguistics, vol.46, issue.4, pp.789-829, 2008.

T. C. Schadeberg, Tone cases in Umbundu, Africana Linguistica, vol.10, pp.423-447, 1986.

T. C. Schadeberg, The Bantu Languages, pp.71-89, 2003.

G. Segerer, Les classes nominales en keerak, Les classes nominales dans les langues atlantiques, pp.103-146, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01251050

G. Segerer and &. S. Flavier, RefLex: Reference Lexicon of Africa, Version, vol.1, issue.1, 2011.

L. Stappers, Morfologie van het Songye, Koninklijk Museum voor MiddenAfrika, 1964.

L. Stappers, Het hoofdtelwoord in de Bantoe-talen, Africana Linguistica, vol.2, pp.177-199, 1965.

E. Ström, The Ndengeleko Language of Tanzania, 2013.

C. Taylor and . Nkore-kiga, , 1985.

J. Torrend, A Comparative grammar of the South-African Bantu languages, comprising those of Zanzibar, Trench, 1891.

C. Twilingiyimana, Éléments de description du doko, 1984.

N. K. Valinande, The structure of Kinande, 1984.

M. Van-de-velde, The order of noun and demonstrative in Bantu, Studies in African Comparative Linguistics, with Special Focus on Bantu and Mande, pp.425-441, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00627353

M. Van-de-velde, The alleged class 2a prefix b? ? in Eton, Paper presented at 31st Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2005.

M. Van-de-velde, Multifunctional Agreement Patterns in Bantu and the Possibility of Genderless Nouns, Linguistic Typology, vol.10, pp.183-221, 2006.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00627252

M. Van-de-velde, Agreement as a grammatical criterion for proper name status in Kirundi, Onoma, vol.44, pp.219-241, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00715563

M. Van-de-velde, The Bantu connective construction, The Genitive, pp.217-252, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00826098

M. Van-de-velde, The augment as a construct form marker in Eton relative clause constructions, Relative Clauses in Cameroonian Languages: Structure, Function and Semantism, tba, 2017.

M. &. Van-de-velde and . Ambouroué, The grammar of Orungu proper names, Journal of African Languages and Linguistics, vol.32, pp.113-141, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00627277

K. &. Van-den-eynde and . Mufuta, Le système de référence primaire du ciluba (lubaKasai): analyse en traits, International Journal of Lexicography, vol.7, pp.90-105, 1994.

J. Van-der-wal, Predicative Tone Lowering in Makhuwa, Linguistics in the Netherlands, vol.23, pp.224-236, 2006.

W. Van-langendonck, Theory and Typology of Proper Names, 2007.

H. Van-leynseele, An outline of Libinza grammar, 1977.

P. M. Von-staden, The initial vowel of the noun in Zulu, African Studies, vol.32, issue.3, pp.163-181, 1973.

B. Wald, Animate concord in Northeast Coastal Bantu: Its linguistic and social implications as a case of grammatical convergence, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.6, issue.3, pp.267-314, 1975.

W. Simeu and A. , Grammaire descriptive du pólrì. Eléments de phonologie, de morphologie et de syntaxe, 2012.

W. E. Welmers, African language structures, 1973.

W. &. Wilkins and . Kimenyi, Strategies in constructing a definite description: some evidence from Kinyarwanda, Studies in African Linguistics, vol.6, issue.2, pp.151-170, 1975.

D. E. Ziervogel and . Mabuza, A Grammar of the Swati Language, 1976.

, The sample is restricted to sources of at least a thousand lexical entries, created by specialists of the language (i.e. excluding lexical surveys) and counts exclude the even numbered classes and everything up from class 13 (included). Percentages of nouns belonging to class 1 in the (North)west include: 2% (Eton A71), 1% (Ngom/Koya B22), 5% (Gevia B301) and 2% (Yombe H16c), More to the East we find: 14% (Lega D25), 13% (Nyamwezi F22), 16% (Ndamba G52), 15% (Makonde P23) and 11% (Tswana S31)

, These subclasses are not to be confused with the notion of 'subgenders' in the typological literature, which involve minimally distinct agreement patterns (Corbett 1991: 163). iii Restrictive relative clauses always require the augment in these languages, whatever the type of modification they provide