, Inner Mongolia before the recent reconstruction. © I. Charleux 1. Entrance pavilion; 2. Lateral gates; 3. Lokap?la Hall; 4. Amit?bha Temple; 5. Amit?yus Temple; 6

, Sa?vara Temple; 10. Main Assembly Hall and shrine, vol.11

, Nine-bay Hall (Jiujianlou); 15. Monks' residences; 16. Entrance Pavilion of the Western Treasury (Bara un sang); 17. Nayicung Temple; 18. Labrang; 19. Entrance Pavilion of the Great Treasury (Yeke Sang); 20. Bodhisattvas' Temple; 21. Monastic Treasury (sang); 22. Five-bay Hall, 12. Refectory, vol.13

, View of the sanctuary (back shrine) from the assembly hall of Nayicung Temple, Yeke juu, Hohhot. © I. Charleux 10a, b. Interior of the sanctuary with the modern statues of the Buddhas of the Three Eras. Back shrine

, The Five Kings with brGya byin in the centre, miniature thang ka, Mongolia, mineral pigment on cotton, © Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts

, Thang ka, late 19 th century, Ferenc Hopp Museum (Inv. No.: 80.6). Kelényi (ed.) 2003: cat. 159 and fig. 79 p, p.110

, See also a thang ka, 19 th century, Rubin Museum of Art (acc

. Nebesky-wojkowitz, , p.108, 1956.

T. Ka, Ferenc Hopp Museum (Inv. No.: 93.49, Kelényi (ed.) 2003: cat. 159 and fig, vol.78, p.91

, ); thang ka, late 18 th -early 19 th century, exhibit "Portals to Shangri-La: Masterpieces from Buddhist Mongolia, collection Hans Leder (Inv. Nr.: 56087, Néprajzi Múzeum Budapest, 2006.

, ); thang ka, 17 th century(?), acquired by Hermann Consten in a monastery, Rubin Museum of Art (acc.# P1996.16.7, vol.63, 1962.

, White Pe har and his four emanations, first half of the 20 th century, private collection (Kelényi (ed.) 2003: cat. 48 and fig. 2 p. 6); thang ka, thang ka, groups of various protective deities, among them

A. Tibetan, White Pe har, rDo rje grags ldan and other deities, or Mongol?) thang ka representing Tshangs pa dkar po surrounded by brGya byin

, A thang ka in the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts, vol.377, 2011.

, collection Leder/Umlauff (Inv. Nr.: 35146, Völkerkundemuseum vPST Heidelberg

K. Thang, ); a large appliqué (198x130 cm) and a thang ka, collection Leder/Umlauff (Inv. Nr.: 33670, Völkerkundemuseum vPST Heidelberg, 2011.

, On the legendary history of this powerful spirit, subdued by Padmasambhava, turned into a protector of gter mas, and one of the three main protectors of the Nyingpamas: Nebesky-Wojkowitz, pp.191-192, 1956.

. Nebesky-wojkowitz, , p.155, 1956.

, On corporations of smiths in Hohhot, their organization and their production: Charleux, pp.85-86, 2010.

. Chandra, , vol.503, p.337, 1961.

, Other Mongol paintings depict him with no hat but a five-skull crown (thang ka, 19 th century, Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, Lipton and Nima Dorjee Ragnubs, pp.192-193, 1996.

, For comparisons of the depiction of mGar ba nag po in the Yeke juu's painting and in Mongol and Chinese Qing-dynasty paintings: Qi Jie, Thang ka, 19 th century, Rubin Museum of Art, pp.25-28, 2009.

. Chandra, But they are very different from the images of Pe har in the Nyingmapa s?dhanas by gTer bdag gling pa (1646-1714)'s sGrub thabs 'dod 'jo bum bzang (Loden Sherap Dagyab, vol.503, p.275, 1961.

, Pe har is not depicted in great Mongol pantheons such as the Bris sku mthong ba don ldan, The Icons Worthwhile to See, 2000.

, Cultural Relics News, pp.63-70, 2001.

, Alexandre, p.17, 1979.

. According-to-jamtsarano-;-tulisow, 1880-1942)'s notes taken during the 1912 Kotwicz expedition, vol.337, pp.1774-1784

, Western Duke Banner of the Urad

O. Dulam, , p.138, 2006.

U. Humphrey, , pp.113-117, 2013.

, Since then it is said that Pe har, being angry with the monks who took arms, does not speak anymore though a medium, Tsybikov also gives a precise description of a gNas chung oracle in bLa brang Monastery, vol.II, pp.47-48, 1919.

W. Leiyi, These objects have disappeared during the Cultural Revolution, p.40, 2009.

M. Runhua and D. Hua, , pp.127-130, 2008.

W. Leiyi, , pp.637-638, 2009.

H. Jagchid, , p.76, 1983.

, For Humphrey and Ujeed, the gürtüm's prophecies and miracles at Mergen süme "can be seen as an attempt to penetrate, n. 47), and, in the 1930s, by Ferdinand Lessing, p.117, 1935.

. Autonomy, He officiated in the Coyijing blama-yin süme in Urga, pp.1899-1901

U. Humphrey, , pp.117-119, 2013.

, See the oracle priests' ceremonial garments described by Nebesky-Wojkowitz, pp.410-415, 1956.

N. Dashdulam, , pp.69-78, 2011.

, On the large 18 th or 19 th century appliqué in the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts, rDo rje grags ldan wears a mirror, 1995.

, The mirror is also an important requisite of the shaman; it helps him to see other worlds and to find the strayed soul of the patient, to contain incoming helper spirits, and serves as a shield against curses and attacks from evilintentioned people or spirits. On the role of the mirror in divination rituals and as an attribute of the shaman and Buddhist deities, p.42, 2004.

. Nebesky-wojkowitz, , p.411, 1956.

, They were borrowed from the four embroidered flags of the generals in Chinese operas (yunqi ??, cloud-flags, deriving from arrows given to messengers to prove the authenticity of their order) and paintings (for instance, They are found in the Tibetan garment of the medium too

. Heller, , p.40, 2006.

, Dashdulam and Naranchimeg, p.42, 2005.

, See the details on his trances, magical feats and the titles he received in Jambal, pp.143-145, 1997.

T. Majer, , pp.95-99, 2006.

N. Dashdulam, Lubsangqayidub twice a year: Nayicung coyijing, Dizimur/Zumer/Zimur (rTse ma ra, Tsi ma ra, i.e. Tsi'u dmar po) and Dorjesug/?üg (rDo rje shugs ldan). 199 Dorjesug was much fiercer than the two others: when he "was within him the Oracle Lama took on a very fierce aspect, hopping and leaping about, bobbing up and down and foaming at the mouth, Dondogdulam, the first consort of the Eighth Jebcündamba who was enthroned at his side as Eke dagini in 1912, also acted as an oracle, vol.48, p.49, 1995.

, Small painting representing an oracle priest, watercolour on paper, 11x8.5 cm, Mongolia, early 20 th century. © Private collection

, Also called Jangqang Temple, at Jegün küriye, the eastern, main part of Urga. The temple was burnt to the ground in 1903, was rebuilt in 1904-1908 and partially destroyed in 1936

, The cult of this deity developed in 19 th -century Tibet among the Gelugpas. Due to suspicion of sectarianism, the Fourteenth Dalai lama (b. 1935) banned it

, Jambal, pp.10-17, 1997.

, The medium legitimates decisions that are actually taken by masked political agents such as the "interpreter, Jambal, p.10, 1997.

, He/she was a male or female layman who worshipped Buddhist deities side by side with those of the Mongol indigenous religion (such as the skies, the fire), but it is unclear whether he could be possessed by Pe har. 204 He beat cymbals instead of the shamanist drum, From gürtüms to layicings and shamans According to W. Heissig, the Buddhist Church first instituted the Tibetan oracle type in Mongolia as the Mongol gürtüms, as a substitute for the shamans, vol.207, p.11, 1997.

, Shamans also adopted the Five Kings and Dorli? as shamanist spirits, and invoked them in their songs. An invocation from Küriye Banner in Inner Mongolia asks Damjin coyijing, Güng jalbu coyijing (Duke rGyal po), Nayicung coyijing, Bayi?ur jalbu coyijung (Pe har rgyal po chos skyong) and Tabun qa?an burqan to cure from sufferings and diseases. 209 Interestingly

, mentions the worship of Hayagr?va, p.226, 1989.

. Humphrey, , p.40, 2006.

. For-roberte-hamayon, he/she asks for the help of his/her auxiliary spirits that he/she is supposed to control. C. Atwood also stressed the "enormous gap that separated shamanic magic and healing from Tantric rituals that could be performed for the same purpose": Tantric ritualists, who perform rituals based on a vast body of written literature with the proper hand gestures and the correct Sanskrit formulas, cannot be viewed as "simply a more systematized development" of the shamans, whose performance is based on "improvisatory oral imagination, p.76, 1995.

, The back chapel of the main temple, Coyijing blama-yin süme (Ulaanbaatar) where Lubsangqayidub used to give oracles. The throne of the Bo da Gegen, the robes, sword, paraphernalia of Lubsangqayidub, On invocations to Dorli?: Even, vol.48, p.90, 1944.

&. Lhacen and . Tib, Lha chen) Cangba?arbo was identified with the master-spirit (?ajar-un ejen) of the mountain Cangba?arbo/Tsambagarav in Western Mongolia (Erdenebüren District, Khovd Province). 212 Mongols thus adopted oracle deities from Tibet to such a point that they turned them into Mongol mountain deities. The Mongols retained the names of "Five Kings" to designate them. 213 It is no doubt that the importance of pentads in the shamanist pantheon (Five Fate Gods Jaya?aci tngri, Five Descending Spirits of Anger, Five Deities of the Door, etc.), and in the Buddhist popular pantheon (Five Personal Protective Deities, Pe har and the Five Kings became powerful but dangerous deities of the Mongol popular pantheon. Because Hor is commonly identified with Mongolia, vol.211, p.214

, who dwell in different parts of a man's body, and are prayed to multiply offspring, bring fortune, wealth, long life, vitality, food, and other worldly goods. 215 Most representations of Pe har are 19 th -and 20 th -century miniature thang kas (burqan-u jiru?) which were purchased by individuals for their particular needs such as "repairing misfortune," or were assigned to them according to their time of birth and worn in an amulet box 216 for personal protection. 217 Stevan Davis, who studied a corpus of 5,120 Mongol miniature paintings, gathered 39 thang kas of White Pe har, 8 of brGya byin, and 38 of mGar ba nag po. 218 The Five Kings are believed to be receptive to mundane wishes such as to provide health, wealth, happiness, and fortune, but are ambivalent gods who must be propitiated, otherwise they can cause calamities. 219 Texts of incense offering (Mo. sang, Tib. bsangs) dedicated to Pe har and Esrua/Br?hma (Tshangs pa dkar po), favoured the adoption of the Five Kings as main popular deities. On a thang ka from Urga, the Five Kings stand in parallel to the Five Personal Protective Deities, p.60, 2011.

(. Otgontenger and . Mo, Thubten Ngodup (1958-), the present-day medium of the gNas chung oracle in Dharamsala, went to pay homage to this "birthplace of Pe har in Mongolia, p.61, 2008.

, Besides, the spirit lord of Bogd Khan Mountain, one of the four mountains that protected Urga, was Dünjin Garbo (or Dunjongarbo, Dünjingarva, < Tib. Dung skyong dkar po), pp.106-107, 1997.

, Because of his "white shell" he may have a connection with Tshangs pa dkar po. Interestingly, in an offering text to Dung skyong dkar po, "protector of the descendants of Chinggis Khan," lCang skya Kutugtu Rol-pa'i rdo-rje (1717-1786) identified him with Pe har, 2016.

, On the non-Buddhist origin of these pentads: Heissig, p.229, 1990.

, Several miniature paintings of Pe har are preserved in the Zanabazar Museum of Fine Arts

, In Tibet, they are believed to "protect man efficaciously against evil spirits and enable him to attain the accomplishment of every wish, p.168, 1928.

. Davis, He describes a miniature thang ka that represents Hayagr?va in the middle, topped by Padmasambhava, and surrounded by four smaller deities: brGya byin, rDo rje grags ldan, Beg tse, 2010.

. Kelényi, , p.92, 2003.

, About a liturgical text to Pe har and R?hu in the Mergen Monastery tradition, Borjigin Ujeed, pp.165-167, 2009.

S. Farkas, , 2002.

, See the story of Pe har who was shot by a yak?a archer of Vai?rava?a's retinue (Tucci, vol.II, pp.734-735, 1949.

S. Farkas, , p.20, 2002.

, The literature on the status of blacksmiths in Mongolia and Buryatia is quite developed, 1952.

. Sonomtseren, Buryats have a group of heavenly spirits called smiths (darqan), and the Buryat smiths are believed to be descended from one of them. On deities of smiths in Mongolia: Even, pp.89-91, 1972.

. Alexandre-egly, Erdeni-zuu, un monastère du XVI e siècle en Mongolie, Études mongoles et sibériennes 10, pp.7-32, 1979.

A. Erike, Öbür Mong?ol-un arad-un keblel-un qoriya, 1999. ALTANORGIL 1982, Kökeqota-yin süme keyid [The Monasteries of Hohhot, The Golden Rosary] 1817, written by Arya pandita mkhan po of the Qalqa

. Altanzayaa-l, Mongol böögiin ulamjlald kholbogdokh khoyor medee, 2012.

P. Atwood-christopher, Buddhism and Popular Ritual in Mongolian Religion: A Reexamination of the Fire Cult, History of Religions, vol.36, issue.2, pp.112-139, 1996.

F. Avedon-john, Exile from the Land of Snows. The Dalai Lama and Tibet since the Chinese Conquest, 1994.

. Berger-patricia, The Legacy of Chinggis Khan, 1995.

S. Francisco, Asian Art Museum of San Francisco

. Biography-of, . Third, and . Lama, rJe btsun thams cad mkhyen pa bSod nams rgya mtsho'i rnam thar dngos grub rgya mtsho'i shing rta, composed in 1646 by the Fifth Dalai Lama Ngag dbang blo bzang rgya mtsho (1617-1682), 1982.

. Birtalan-Ágnes, Equestrian Warrior Deities in the Leder Collection. Some Aspects of the Mongolian War God, The Mongolian Collections. Retracing Hans Leder, pp.99-110, 2013.

. Borjigin-ujeed-uranchimeg, Indigenous Efforts and Dimensions of Mongolian Buddhism-Exemplified by the Mergen Tradition, 2009.

. Boyer-martha, Mongol Jewelry, 1952.

. Brauen-martin, 2004, Les Dalaï-lamas. Les 14 réincarnations du bodhisattva Avalokite?vara, 2004.

. Chandra-lokesh, Buddhist Iconography, 1961.

. Charleux-isabelle, The Making of Mongol Buddhist Art and Architecture: Artisans in Mongolia from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Century, Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques and Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art, pp.59-105, 2006.

, Recent Research on the Maitreya Monastery in Inner Mongolia (China), Études Asiatiques -Asiatische Studien, vol.68, issue.1, pp.1-64

, The Mongols' Devotion to the Jowo Buddhas: The True Icons and their Mongol Replicas, vol.75, p.2015

E. Chiodo, Songs of Khorchin Shamans to Jayagachi, the Protector of Livestock and Property, 2009.

. Daajav-b, Mongolyn uran barilgyn tüükh, vol.3, 2006.

D. D. and J. Naranchimeg, Niislel khüreenii golyn choijon sakhiusny süm buyu dogshigyn oron [The monastery of the main protectors of the Dharma of Niislel khüree (Urga), 2011.

. Davis-stevan, The Miniature Paintings of Mongolian Buddhism: Tsaklis, Thangkas and Burhany Zurags, 2010.

D. Bumochir and O. Ayushiin, The Transmission and Source of Prophecy in Contemporary Mongolia, Time, Causality and Prophecy in the Mongolian Cultural Region, pp.116-151, 2006.

J. Elverskog, The Jewel Translucent S?tra. Altan Khan and the Mongols in the Sixteenth Century, 2003.

. Erdeni-tunumal-neretü-sudur and . Orosiba, , 1607.

. Even-marie-dominique, Chants de chamanes mongols, special issue of Études mongoles et sibériennes, pp.19-20, 1988.

. Farkas-jános and S. Tibor, The Pictorial World of the Tibeto-Mongolian Demons /Die Bilderwelt der tibetisch-mongolischen Dämonen, 2002.

F. Zara, L. Jadamba, and . Shastri, Serindia Publications/Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, and the Centre for Cultural Heritage, vol.I, p.2911

. Forbath-ladislaus, The New Mongolia, as related by Joseph Geleta; transl, 1936.

?. Ge-laxiseleng, Menggu wen "Ganzhuer" foxiang quantu (shang) ???? ???????-Mong?ol "?anjuur" daki burqan-u bürin iji körög jiru?, 2001.

A. Getty, The Gods of Northern Buddhism. Their History, Iconography and Progressive Evolution through the Northern Buddhism, 1928.

. Hamayon-roberte, Pour en finir avec la 'transe' et l''extase' dans l'étude du chamanisme, pp.155-190, 1995.

H. Henning, Men and Gods in Mongolia (Zayagan), transl. from the Swedish, 1935.

. Havnevik-hanna, A Tibetan Female State Oracle, Religion and Secular Culture in Tibet. Tibetan Studies II (Proceedings of the Ninth Seminar of the IATS, I), pp.259-288, 2002.

W. Heissig, Schamanen und Geisterbeschwörer im Küriye-Banner, Asian Folklore Studies, vol.3, issue.1, pp.39-71, 1944.

, Les religions de la Mongolie, Les Religions du Tibet et de la Mongolie, Giuseppe Tucci and Walther Heissig, pp.337-488, 1970.

, New Material on East Mongolian Shamanism, Asian Folklore Studies, vol.49, issue.2, pp.223-233

A. Heller, Historic and Iconographic Aspects of the Protective Deities Srung-ma dmar-nag, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the 5th Seminar of the IATS (Narita, 1989), pp.479-492, 1992.

, Les déités protectrices des dalai-lamas, Les Dalaï-lamas. Les 14 réincarnations du bodhisattva Avalokite?vara, transl. Jean-Daniel Pellet, pp.212-229

, Armor and Weapons in the Iconography of Tibetan Buddhist Deities, Warriors of the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor of Tibet, pp.34-41

. Hummel-siegbert, East and West (new series 13/4, pp.313-316, 1962.

. Humphrey-caroline, Prophecy and Sequential Orders in Mongolian Political History, Time, Causality and Prophecy in the Mongolian Cultural Region, pp.61-97, 2006.

, Inside and Outside the Mirror: Mongolian Shamans' Mirrors as Instruments of Perspectivism, Inner Asia, vol.9, pp.173-195

. Humphrey-caroline and U. Hurelbaatar, A Monastery in Time. The Making of Mongolian Buddhism, 2013.

J. Sechin and P. Hyer, A Mongolian Living Buddha: Biography of the Kanjurwa Khutughtu, 1983.

, JAMBAL 1997, Tales of an Old Lama, trad. Charles Bawden, 1959.

;. Kapstein-matthew, . L&apos;oracle, and T. Le-temple-de-lamo-tchok-au-xviii-e-siècle-au, , pp.27-28, 2009.

. Karmay-samten, Secret Visions of the Fifth Dalai Lama. The Gold Manuscript in the Fournier Collection, Musée Guimet, 1988.

. Kelényi-béla, Demons and Protectors. Folk Religion in Tibetan and Mongolian Buddhism, 2003.

M. N. Khangalova, Buddiiskaya jivopis' Buryatii. Iz Fondov Muzeya Istorii Buryatii, 1995.

K. Karénina, Die Biographie des Altan qa?an der Tümed-Mongolen. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der religionspolitischen Beziehungen zwischen der Mongolei und Tibet im ausgehenden 16, Jahrhundert, 2001.

M. Lambrecht, Art sacré du Tibet: la collection des Musées royaux d'art et d'histoire, Musée des Beaux-Arts, 2005.

F. Lessing, , 1935.

. Liao-dongfan-???, Xueyu zhongshen ????, 2008.

L. Shen-yu, Pehar: A Historical Survey, Revue d'études tibétaines 19, pp.5-26, 2010.

. Linrothe-rob, Protection, Benefaction, and Transformation: Wrathful Deities in Himalayan Art, Linrothe and Watt, pp.3-43, 2004.

, Demonic Divine: Himalayan Art and Beyond, with an essay by Marylin Rhie, 2004.

L. Barbara, N. Dorjee, and R. , Treasures of Tibetan Art. Collections of the Jacques Marchais Museum of Tibetan Art, 1996.

. Loden and . Dagyab, Die S?dhanas der Sammlung sGrub-thabs 'Dod-'jo, Ikonographie und Symbolik des tibetischen Buddhismus), 1991.

A. Macdonald, Histoire et philologie tibétaine: le culte de Pehar et de Ci ú dmar po dans la tradition écrite et orale, École Pratique des Hautes Études, IV e section, pp.1139-1145, 1977.

. Majer-zsuzsa and T. Krisztina, Monasteries and Temples of Bogdiin Khüree, Yeke küriye or Urga, the Old Capital City of Mongolia in the First Part of the Twentieth Century, 2006.

. Martin-dan, The Star King and the Four Children of Pehar: Popular Religious Movements of 11 th -12 th -Century Tibet, Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungarica XLIX, issue.1-2, pp.171-195, 1996.

. Meinert-carmen, Buddha in the Yurt. Buddhist Art from Mongolia, vol.2, 2011.

?. Miao-runhua, H. Du, and . ??, Caoyuan fosheng -Menggu diqu huangjiao diyi si Meidaizhao ji ???? -????????????? [The Song of Grassland Buddhist -The Story of Mei Dai Zhao First Temple of the Yellow, 2008.

. Montell-gösta, Statens Etnografiska Museum (Reports from the Scientific Expedition to the North-Western Provinces of China under the Leadership of Dr, Våra Vänner På Stäppen: genom Mongoliet till Torgoterna vid Etsingol [Our Friends on the Steppe: Through Mongolia to the Torgots by Etsingol, pp.327-448, 1929.

. Myagmarsambuu-g, Shashnyg khamgaalagch dogshin choijin, 2005.

N. De, Archiv für Völkerkunde, Band III, pp.136-155, 1948.

, Oracles and Demons of Tibet: The Cult and Iconography of the Tibetan Protective Deities, vol.22, pp.221-244, 1956.

. Okada-hidehiro, The Third Dalai-lama and Altan Khan of the Tümed, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the 5th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies (Narita, 1989), pp.645-652, 1992.

. Pommaret-françoise, Anne-Marie Blondeau, papers presented at a Panel of the 7 th Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Maître des Trésors' (gter bdag): divinités locales et médiums au Bhoutan, pp.79-97, 1995.

M. Pozdneev-aleksei, Mongolia and the Mongols, vol.I, 1896.

, Mongolia and the Mongols, vol.II, pp.1896-1898

, Religion and Ritual in Society: Lamaist Buddhism in late 19 th -century Mongolia, transl, p.1978

?. Qi-jie, Nei Menggu Dazhaosi Naiqiongmiao fodian bihua yanjiu" ??????? ???????? [Study of the Paintings of Naiqiong Temple in Dazhao Monastery, 2009.

?. Qin-zhong, X. Gengsheng, and ?. , Fojiao tuxiang ji: yiqian wu bai nian fojiao huihua xunli ?????: ???????????, 2001.

R. Franco, Il Tempio oracolare di Gnas-chu?: gli dei del Tibet piú magico e segreto, 1999.

R. Tibetains, . Visions, . Du-v-e-dalaï, and . Lama, des musées nationaux and Findakly, 2002.

H. Sardar, Danzanravjaa: The Fierce Drunken Lord of the Gobi, The MongoliaTibet Interface: Opening New Research Terrains in Inner Asia. Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the IATS, pp.257-294, 2003.

, Calling the Soul of the Dead: Texts of Mongol Folk-religion in the St, 2004.

. Sonomtseren-l, Mongol darkhny urlag, 1972.

K. Sørensen-per and H. Guntram, Thundering Falcon. An Inquiry into the History and Cult of Khra-'brug Tibet's First Buddhist temple, 2005.

. Stoddard-heather, On the 'Re-membering' of History and the Creation of Gods, Les Habitants du toit du monde, pp.75-109, 1997.

. Su-bai-??, ?? ??????????????????? [Study of the layout of halls of monastery of Hohhot and its surroundings, Wenwu ?? 1994-4, pp.53-61, 1994.

. Tsultem-n, = Cültem) 1986, Development of the Mongolian National Style Painting "Mongol Zurag" in Brief, four languages

T. Tsybikov-gonbochjab, Un Pèlerin bouddhiste au Tibet (transl. from Russian by Bernard Kreise, 1919.

G. Tucci, Les Religions du Tibet et de la Mongolie, Giuseppe Tucci and Walther Heissig, vol.3, pp.337-488, 1949.

. Tulisow-jerzy, B. Agata, and F. Majkowski, Description of the Three {Dz?} and the {Lavran} in the Erdene Zuu Monastery by Ts. Jamtsarano," in In the Heart of Mongolia. 100th Anniversary of W. Kotwicz's Expedition to Mongolia in 1912, Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, pp.333-361, 2012.

V. Uspenskiy, About the Buddhist protective deity of the descendants of Chinggis Khan, International Seminar on Tibetan Studies, 2016.

?. Wang-jiapeng, Daiyan shenwu lamo chuizhong yu Qianlong gongting" ??? ??????????, Beijing zangxue taolunhui tiyaoji ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? (Proceedings of the conference of Tibetology in Beijing, pp.14-16, 2008.

?. Wang-leiyi, G. Yao, . ???, J. Guo, and . ???, Zangchuan fojiao siyuan Meidaizhao Wudangzhao diaocha yu yanjiu ?????????????? ???, 2009.

M. Willson-martin and . Brauen, Deities of Tibetan Buddhism: The Zürich paintings of the Icons Worthwhile to See, 2000.

?. Zhang-haibin, Meidaizhao bihua yu caihui ????????-Mayidar juuyin qan-a-yin jiru? kiged boda?tu jirumal, 2010.

, Inner Mongolian mural painting, and visual representation of past and present ancestors and figures of authority in the Mongol world. Her current research includes Mongol Buddhist architecture and society; art and craft production in past and present-day Mongolia; Mongol material culture; reconstruction of Buddhist monasteries in present-day Mongolia and Inner Mongolia, and Mongol pilgrimages in China, Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques & Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art, 2006), another book on Mongols' pilgrimages to Wutaishan (Nomads on Pilgrimage: Mongols on Wutaishan (China), pp.1800-1940, 2015.