La frontière coréenne et le "problème" nord-coréen.

Abstract : In this paper, I use a geographical analysis of the Korean issue to address two simple questions: How to explain the cyclical nature and the irresolution of the Korean crisis? Why is North Korea such a grave problem for the international community? Since the 1990s, the "denucleraization" of the Korean peninsula and the improvement of human rights in North Korea, including a regime change, appear as major goals for the international community. In 2018, after more than 25 years of negociations and actions, none of these objectives are met. North Korea can still be considered a totalitarian State and it owns the nuclear weapon since 2006 (first nuclear test on October 9, 2006). The 2008-2018 decade even showed the development of an already acquired nuclear capacity, which combines self-defense and reinforcement of the State power in place, under Kim Jong Il then Kim Jong Un. The cyclical nature of the Korean geopolitical issue fuels an equaly cyclic media blaze, which fails to explian the deep dynamics of this situation, still unresolved on a political level. Indeed, in the armistice regime that frames since 1953 the inter-Korean relations, and which is neither peace nor war (or as much peace as war), the inter-Korean border displays a few major characteristics: il is the "non-border" of an "unifinished war" (B. Cumings), or a "meta-border" (M. Foucher 2007), and it is still in the making. Moreover, this "meta-frontière" determines a "meta-nation" (Gelézeau 2008, 2018), which includes today two nation-State (North & South Korea) and a diaspora beyond the peninsular space. Now, on the political level, this "meta-nation" is highly polarized and this polarization is articulated with a demonization of North Korea, in the media and expert discourse. The demonization of North Korea sets those discourse on a moral level, rather than that of scientific integrity, and it fails to produce a cirtical and problematize political and social analysis of such a State (non-democratic/totalitarian, in social crisi/developing, etc.). In the absence of a peace treaty, the cyclic nature of the nuclear/inter-Korean crisis will keep its dynamics, while the North Korean "problem" will stay unresolved as long as a radically different perspective to consider North Korea does not develop.
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Valérie Gelézeau. La frontière coréenne et le "problème" nord-coréen.. Critique, Centre National des Lettres, 2018, La Corée, combien de divisions?, pp.64-74. ⟨halshs-02022996⟩

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